A SYNDROME familiar to urologists is that which affects women and consists of urinary frequency; dysuria; "pressure"; pain in the low back, flank, and suprapubic area; occasional bleeding (most often blood on the toilet paper used after voiding); and often malaise and "tiredness." Although these symptoms are those of inflammation of the lower urinary tract, corroborative physical and laboratory findings are minimal if not absent altogether. There may be some suprapubic tenderness, and the genitalia and urethral meatus remain unremarkable. Urinalyses and pyelograms show normal results, as do tests of residual urine.
The urethra has been commonly blamed for this syndrome, and many experienced observers find urethral stenosis, edema, hyperemia, granularity, polyps at the neck of the bladder, or exudate on the trigone.1 Others doubt the significance of these findings and do not feel that they can be correlated with the symptomatology. Allergic and psychic factors,2 senile atrophy,
Zufall R. Treatment of the Urethral Syndrome in Women. JAMA. 1963;184(11):894–895. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1963.73700240019019a
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