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The heart (the only organ in the body which is never at rest) with its investing membranes, the serous and fibrous pericardium, is situated in the median line of the thorax, and occupies the entire space between the two lungs and pleurÆ. This pericardial sac includes the heart, the origin of the large blood vessels, and possesses very complete fixation. Next to the pelvis Paul claims the pericardial sac to be the least movable region in the human body. Its apex is fixed to the skeleton by three ligaments, one coalescing with the inter vertebral ligament of the third cervical vertebra; another uniting with the middle aponeurosis of the neck is inserted into the hyoid bone, the other passes anteriorly to the sternum.
The base of the pericardium is fixed to the centre of the diaphragm and through the medium of this muscle is united posteriorly to the spinal column,
CAMPBELL OB. THE IMPORTANCE OP POSITION IN EXAMINATION OF DISEASES OF THE HEART. JAMA. 1892;XIX(5):124–125. doi:10.1001/jama.1892.02420050006001b
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