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August 27, 1892

FACIAL EXPRESSIONS AS INFLUENCED BY THE OCULAR MUSCLES.Read in the Section of Ophthalmology at the Forty-third Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association, held at Detroit, Mich., June, 1892.

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JAMA. 1892;XIX(9):257-258. doi:10.1001/jama.1892.02420090019002g

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In the course of some years of close observation of the anomalies of the muscles which govern the movemente of the eyes, the fact that remarkable changes often follow the modification of these muscles led me not only to regard with greater care these facial changes, but to bring to the subject the aid of photography. Photographic portraits of more than two thousand persons have been taken, the records of whose ocular-muscle conditions have been carefully and repeatedly made.

We have thus for the first time a series of observations in which the facial expressions are registered by photography while pains-taking determinations of the ocular-muscle conditions are faithfully recorded. The result of the study has been to demonstrate that certain well defined types of facial expression are not only associated with but are dependent upon certain relative tensions of the oculo-motor muscles. With the state of equilibrium of the eye

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