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January 26, 2021, Vol 325, No. 4, Pages 323-408

In This Issue of JAMA

Audio Highlights

Abstract Full Text
free access online only has audio
JAMA. 2021;325(4):e2017761. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.17761
Original Investigation

Effect of Oral Moxifloxacin vs Intravenous Ertapenem Plus Oral Levofloxacin for Treatment of Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis: The APPAC II Randomized Clinical Trial

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):353-362. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.23525

This noninferiority trial compares the effects of 2 antibiotic strategies, oral moxifloxacin vs intravenous ertapenem followed by oral levofloxacin, on hospital discharge without surgery and recurrent appendicitis over 1 year among adults presenting to the emergency department with uncomplicated acute appendicitis.

Effect of Behavioral Therapy With In-Clinic or Telephone Group Visits vs In-Clinic Individual Visits on Weight Loss Among Patients With Obesity in Rural Clinical Practice: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;325(4):363-372. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.25855

This randomized trial compares the effects on 24-month weight change of behavioral therapy delivered at US rural clinics via in-clinic individual visits or in-clinic group visits vs telephone group visits to patients with obesity.

Incidence of Transient Ischemic Attack and Association With Long-term Risk of Stroke

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):373-381. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.25071

This cohort study uses Framingham Heart Study (FHS) data to assess population-based incidence of transient ischemic attack (TIA), and the timing and long-term trends of stroke risk after TIA, among participants in the FHS Original, Offspring, and Third Generation cohorts from 1948 to 2017.

Research Letter

National Trends in the US Public’s Likelihood of Getting a COVID-19 Vaccine—April 1 to December 8, 2020

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):396-398. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26419

This internet survey study describes trends in respondents saying they were likely to accept vaccination for COVID-19 overall and by age, sex, race, and education between April and December 2020.

Hospital Revenue Under Maryland’s Total Cost of Care Model During the COVID-19 Pandemic, March-July 2020

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):398-400. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.22149

This study compares revenue of Maryland hospitals in March-July 2020 vs historical trends and assesses whether rate increases for inpatient and outpatient services that were permitted to offset pandemic-related decines in revenues were associated with changes to state hospital revenue.

Viewpoint

Health Policy

Addressing the Risk of Medicare Trust Fund Insolvency

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JAMA. 2021;325(4):341-342. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26026

This Viewpoint proposes policy options to forestall insolvency of the Medicare Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, including practical and politically palatable strategies to increase revenues and decrease spending to prevent looming shortfalls.

Three Interventions to Address the Other Pandemic—Firearm Injury and Death

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):343-344. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.24206

This Viewpoint reviews 3 policy options with broad political support that have been shown or are being studied to reduce gun violence: mapping sites for individuals to temporarily store their firearms during a crisis, voluntary do-not-sell lists, and extreme risk protection orders to restrict firearm purchase and possession by individuals at high risk of harm.

Problematic Promotion of Medications by Nurse Ambassadors—Legal and Ethical Issues

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JAMA. 2021;325(4):345-346. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.24509

This Viewpoint explains how pharmaceutical companies use “nurse ambassadors,” paid registered nurses who interact with patients in home or phone visits to facilitate provision, administration, and refills of expensive medication, and implications of a 2020 settlement between AbbVie and the state of California requiring improved disclosures but largely allowing the programs to continue.

Balancing the Risks and Benefits of Benzodiazepines

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JAMA. 2021;325(4):347-348. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.22106

Following a September 2020 FDA announcement of a boxed warning for benzodiazepines, this Viewpoint reviews the relative benefits and risks of the drugs to reduce overuse in at-risk patients, moderate underuse in clinically appropriate instances, and guide judicious, rational prescribing.

A Piece of My Mind

Shared Grief

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):349-350. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.25000

In this narrative medicine essay a neonatal ICU nurse afraid to hold her newborn daughter after she dies draws comfort and a sense of connection years later from the memory of a parent she had unconsciously stigmatized, who held and loved her infant son at his death.

Editorial

Evolving Issues in the Use of Antibiotics for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Appendicitis

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;325(4):351-352. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.23607
Review

Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):382-390. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.20317

This narrative review summarizes the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of acute pancreatitis, including advances in risk stratification, fluid and nutritional management, and follow-up care and risk-reduction strategies.

JAMA Insights

Pancreatic Cysts—An Overview and Summary of Society Guidelines, 2021

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):391-392. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.18678

This JAMA Insights review summarizes and interprets specialty society guidelines on the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cysts for primary care physicians, focusing on high-risk features, management, and surveillance

JAMA Clinical Challenge

Scaly Dermatitis and Edema in an Irritable Child

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):393-394. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.10429

A 19-month-old boy fed a vegan diet after being diagnosed with milk, egg, and peanut allergies developed failure to thrive, speech delay, and acute irritability with widespread dermatitis and edema. What is the diagnosis and what would you do next?

Medical News & Perspectives

Africa Succeeded Against COVID-19’s First Wave, but the Second Wave Brings New Challenges

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):327-328. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.24288

This Medical News article discusses how Africa prevailed during the early onslaught of coronavirus disease 2019 and made plans to combat a second wave of the pandemic.

Quick Uptakes

Sorting Out Whether Vitamin D Deficiency Raises COVID-19 Risk

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JAMA. 2021;325(4):329-330. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.24127

This Medical News Quick Uptake examines the debate about a link between vitamin D and COVID-19 risk.

The JAMA Forum

“This Level of Death, It’s New”—Health Care Workers in Their Own Words

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):331-332. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26415
News From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Racial Variations in Parents’ Attitudes About Reopening Schools

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):335. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26168

Drug-Resistant Bacteria Outbreak Linked to COVID-19 Patient Surge

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):335. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26113
Clinical Trials Update

Simplified Regimen Expands Options for Dual-Therapy HIV Maintenance

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):334. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.25388

Fecal Immunochemical Testing vs Sigmoidoscopy for Cancer Screening

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):334. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26824

Intravenous Iron Therapy Prevents Heart Failure Rehospitalizations

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):334. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26826

Ablation Beats Drugs for Initial Atrial Fibrillation Treatment

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):334. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26828
Health Agencies Update

Funding Efforts to Reduce COVID-19 Testing Hesitancy

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):333. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.25803

Obstacles to Implementing AI Tools in Health Care

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):333. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26933

The Costs of US Emergency Department Visits

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):333. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26936
The Arts and Medicine

Who Is the Parasite?—COVID-19 and Structural Narratives of Health Inequity

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JAMA. 2021;325(4):325-326. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.21450

This Arts and Medicine feature reviews Parasite, winner of the 2020 Academy Award for Best Picture, finding in its story of class struggle a way for clinicians and health systems to better understand structural origins of patients’ socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequity.

Poetry and Medicine

The Strange Cabinet

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):404. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.22840
JAMA Revisited

Appendicitis in France and in America

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):405. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.17750
JAMA Patient Page

Amblyopia

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):408. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.5741

This JAMA Patient Page explains the causes, symptoms, and management of amblyopia, reduced vision in one or both eyes due to abnormal visual development during childhood.

Comment & Response

Update on Lipids and Lipoproteins

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;325(4):400. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.22621

Update on Lipids and Lipoproteins—Reply

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;325(4):400-401. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.22624

Update on Hepatitis A Management

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;325(4):401. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.22804

Update on Hepatitis A Management—Reply

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;325(4):401-402. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.22807
Correction

Numerical Error in Text

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;325(4):402. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26894
JAMA Masthead

JAMA

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JAMA. 2021;325(4):323-324. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.17759
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