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Chen WY, Rosner B, Hankinson SE, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Moderate Alcohol Consumption During Adult Life, Drinking Patterns, and Breast Cancer Risk. JAMA. 2011;306(17):1884–1890. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1590
Author Affiliations: Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (Drs Chen, Rosner, Hankinson, and Willett); Department of Surgery, Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (Dr Colditz); Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (Dr Chen); Departments of Epidemiology (Drs Hankinson and Willett) and Nutrition (Dr Willett), Harvard School of Public Health, Boston; and Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst (Dr Hankinson).
Context Multiple studies have linked alcohol consumption to breast cancer risk, but the risk of lower levels of consumption has not been well quantified. In addition, the role of drinking patterns (ie, frequency of drinking and “binge” drinking) and consumption at different times of adult life are not well understood.
Objective To evaluate the association of breast cancer with alcohol consumption during adult life, including quantity, frequency, and age at consumption.
Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective observational study of 105 986 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study followed up from 1980 until 2008 with an early adult alcohol assessment and 8 updated alcohol assessments.
Main Outcome Measures Relative risks of developing invasive breast cancer.
Results During 2.4 million person-years of follow-up, 7690 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed. Increasing alcohol consumption was associated with increased breast cancer risk that was statistically significant at levels as low as 5.0 to 9.9 g per day, equivalent to 3 to 6 drinks per week (relative risk, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.24; 333 cases/100 000 person-years). Binge drinking, but not frequency of drinking, was associated with breast cancer risk after controlling for cumulative alcohol intake. Alcohol intake both earlier and later in adult life was independently associated with risk.
Conclusions Low levels of alcohol consumption were associated with a small increase in breast cancer risk, with the most consistent measure being cumulative alcohol intake throughout adult life. Alcohol intake both earlier and later in adult life was independently associated with risk.
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