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Original Contribution
ONLINE FIRST
June 13, 2012

Effect of an Indwelling Pleural Catheter vs Chest Tube and Talc Pleurodesis for Relieving Dyspnea in Patients With Malignant Pleural Effusion: The TIME2 Randomized Controlled Trial

Author Affiliations
    † Deceased.

Author Affiliations: Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, Wales (Dr H. E. Davies); Oxford Centre for Respiratory Medicine and Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, England (Drs Mishra, Wrightson, R. J. O. Davies, and Rahman and Ms Crosthwaite); Medical Research Council’s Clinical Trials Unit, London (Mr Kahan); National Institute of Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford (Drs Wrightson, R. J. O. Davies, and Rahman); Great Western Hospital, Swindon (Dr Stanton); James Cook University Hospital, South Tees (Dr Guhan); University Hospital Ayr, Ayr (Dr Guhan); Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, Wales (Dr C. W. H. Davies); Horton Hospital, Banbury (Dr Grayez); University Hospital of North Tees, North Tees (Dr Harrison); Buckinghamshire Healthcare National Health Service Trust, Buckinghamshire (Dr Prasad); School of Medicine and Pharmacology and Centre for Asthma, Allergy, and Respiratory Research, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia (Dr Lee); and Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College, London (Dr Miller).

†Deceased.

JAMA. 2012;307(22):2383-2389. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.5535
Abstract

Context Malignant pleural effusion causes disabling dyspnea in patients with a short life expectancy. Palliation is achieved by fluid drainage, but the most effective first-line method has not been determined.

Objective To determine whether indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) are more effective than chest tube and talc slurry pleurodesis (talc) at relieving dyspnea.

Design Unblinded randomized controlled trial (Second Therapeutic Intervention in Malignant Effusion Trial [TIME2]) comparing IPC and talc (1:1) for which 106 patients with malignant pleural effusion who had not previously undergone pleurodesis were recruited from 143 patients who were treated at 7 UK hospitals. Patients were screened from April 2007-February 2011 and were followed up for a year.

Intervention Indwelling pleural catheters were inserted on an outpatient basis, followed by initial large volume drainage, education, and subsequent home drainage. The talc group were admitted for chest tube insertion and talc for slurry pleurodesis.

Main Outcome Measure Patients completed daily 100-mm line visual analog scale (VAS) of dyspnea over 42 days after undergoing the intervention (0 mm represents no dyspnea and 100 mm represents maximum dyspnea; 10 mm represents minimum clinically significant difference). Mean difference was analyzed using a mixed-effects linear regression model adjusted for minimization variables.

Results Dyspnea improved in both groups, with no significant difference in the first 42 days with a mean VAS dyspnea score of 24.7 in the IPC group (95% CI, 19.3-30.1 mm) and 24.4 mm (95% CI, 19.4-29.4 mm) in the talc group, with a difference of 0.16 mm (95% CI, −6.82 to 7.15; P = .96). There was a statistically significant improvement in dyspnea in the IPC group at 6 months, with a mean difference in VAS score between the IPC group and the talc group of −14.0 mm (95% CI, −25.2 to −2.8 mm; P = .01). Length of initial hospitalization was significantly shorter in the IPC group with a median of 0 days (interquartile range [IQR], 0-1 day) and 4 days (IQR, 2-6 days) for the talc group, with a difference of −3.5 days (95% CI, −4.8 to −1.5 days; P < .001). There was no significant difference in quality of life. Twelve patients (22%) in the talc group required further pleural procedures compared with 3 (6%) in the IPC group (odds ratio [OR], 0.21; 95% CI, 0.04-0.86; P = .03). Twenty-one of the 52 patients in the catheter group experienced adverse events vs 7 of 54 in the talc group (OR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.75-12.60; P = .002).

Conclusion Among patients with malignant pleural effusion and no previous pleurodesis, there was no significant difference between IPCs and talc pleurodesis at relieving patient-reported dyspnea.

Trial Registration isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN87514420

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