Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Setting in Adults With Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial | Critical Care Medicine | JAMA | JAMA Network
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Caring for the Critically Ill Patient
February 13, 2008

Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Setting in Adults With Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Département de Réanimation Médicale et Médecine Hyperbare, CHU d’Angers, Angers, France (Dr Mercat); Service de Réanimation Médicale et UPRES EA 38-30, CHU de Rouen (Dr Richard); Service de Biostatistiques et Modélisation Informatique, CHU d’Angers (Dr Vielle); Service d’Anesthésie-Réanimation B, CHU de Montpellier (Dr Jaber); Service de Réanimation Médicale, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris, CHU de Bicêtre (Dr Osman); Service de Réanimation Médicale, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris (Dr Diehl); Division Anesthésie Réanimation Douleur Urgences, Unités de Réanimation Chirurgicale et Médicale, CHU de Nîmes (Drs Lefrant and Gervais); Service de Réanimation Médicale, CHU de Brest (Dr Prat); Service de Réanimation Polyvalente, CH de Pontoise (Dr Richecoeur); Service de Réanimation Médicale, CHU Pitié-Salpétrière, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris (Dr Nieszkowska); Service de Réanimation Polyvalente, CH de Nevers (Dr Baudot); Service de Réanimation Médicale, CHU Bichat-Claude Bernard, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris (Dr Bouadma); and Service de Réanimation Médicale, CHU Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris, Créteil, INSERM Unit 841 et Université Paris 12 (Dr Brochard).

JAMA. 2008;299(6):646-655. doi:10.1001/jama.299.6.646
Abstract

Context The need for lung protection is universally accepted, but the optimal level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome remains debated.

Objective To compare the effect on outcome of a strategy for setting PEEP aimed at increasing alveolar recruitment while limiting hyperinflation to one aimed at minimizing alveolar distension in patients with ALI.

Design, Setting, and Patients A multicenter randomized controlled trial of 767 adults (mean [SD] age, 59.9 [15.4] years) with ALI conducted in 37 intensive care units in France from September 2002 to December 2005.

Intervention Tidal volume was set at 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight in both strategies. Patients were randomly assigned to a moderate PEEP strategy (5-9 cm H2O) (minimal distension strategy; n = 382) or to a level of PEEP set to reach a plateau pressure of 28 to 30 cm H2O (increased recruitment strategy; n = 385).

Main Outcome Measures The primary end point was mortality at 28 days. Secondary end points were hospital mortality at 60 days, ventilator-free days, and organ failure–free days at 28 days.

Results The 28-day mortality rate in the minimal distension group was 31.2% (n = 119) vs 27.8% (n = 107) in the increased recruitment group (relative risk, 1.12 [95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.40]; P = .31). The hospital mortality rate in the minimal distension group was 39.0% (n = 149) vs 35.4% (n = 136) in the increased recruitment group (relative risk, 1.10 [95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.32]; P = .30). The increased recruitment group compared with the minimal distension group had a higher median number of ventilator-free days (7 [interquartile range {IQR}, 0-19] vs 3 [IQR, 0-17]; P = .04) and organ failure–free days (6 [IQR, 0-18] vs 2 [IQR, 0-16]; P = .04). This strategy also was associated with higher compliance values, better oxygenation, less use of adjunctive therapies, and larger fluid requirements.

Conclusions A strategy for setting PEEP aimed at increasing alveolar recruitment while limiting hyperinflation did not significantly reduce mortality. However, it did improve lung function and reduced the duration of mechanical ventilation and the duration of organ failure.

Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00188058

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