Minimally Interrupted Cardiac Resuscitation by Emergency Medical Services for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest | Emergency Medicine | JAMA | JAMA Network
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Original Contribution
March 12, 2008

Minimally Interrupted Cardiac Resuscitation by Emergency Medical Services for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Department of Emergency Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale (Drs Bobrow and Richman); Arizona Department of Health Services Bureau of Emergency Medical Services and Trauma System, Phoenix (Dr Bobrow and Mss Clark and Chikani); Sarver Heart Center, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson (Drs Bobrow, Ewy, Sanders, Berg, and Kern, and Ms Clark); and Departments of Medicine (Drs Ewy and Kern), Emergency Medicine (Dr Sanders), and Pediatrics (Dr Berg), University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona.

JAMA. 2008;299(10):1158-1165. doi:10.1001/jama.299.10.1158
Abstract

Context Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a major public health problem.

Objective To investigate whether the survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest would improve with minimally interrupted cardiac resuscitation (MICR), an alternate emergency medical services (EMS) protocol.

Design, Setting, and Patients A prospective study of survival-to-hospital discharge between January 1, 2005, and November 22, 2007. Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in 2 metropolitan cities in Arizona before and after MICR training of fire department emergency medical personnel were assessed. In a second analysis of protocol compliance, patients from the 2 metropolitan cities and 60 additional fire departments in Arizona who actually received MICR were compared with patients who did not receive MICR but received standard advanced life support.

Intervention Instruction for EMS personnel in MICR, an approach that includes an initial series of 200 uninterrupted chest compressions, rhythm analysis with a single shock, 200 immediate postshock chest compressions before pulse check or rhythm reanalysis, early administration of epinephrine, and delayed endotracheal intubation.

Main Outcome Measure Survival-to-hospital discharge.

Results Among the 886 patients in the 2 metropolitan cities, survival-to-hospital discharge increased from 1.8% (4/218) before MICR training to 5.4% (36/668) after MICR training (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-8.9). In the subgroup of 174 patients with witnessed cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation, survival increased from 4.7% (2/43) before MICR training to 17.6% (23/131) after MICR training (OR, 8.6; 95% CI, 1.8-42.0). In the analysis of MICR protocol compliance involving 2460 patients with cardiac arrest, survival was significantly better among patients who received MICR than those who did not (9.1% [60/661] vs 3.8% [69/1799]; OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.9-4.1), as well as patients with witnessed ventricular fibrillation (28.4% [40/141] vs 11.9% [46/387]; OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0-5.8).

Conclusions Survival-to-hospital discharge of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest increased after implementation of MICR as an alternate EMS protocol. These results need to be confirmed in a randomized trial.

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