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Original Investigation
April 16, 2014

Effect of Metformin on Left Ventricular Function After Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients Without Diabetes: The GIPS-III Randomized Clinical Trial

Author Affiliations
  • 1University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen, the Netherlands
  • 2University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Critical Care, Groningen, the Netherlands
  • 3University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Groningen, the Netherlands
  • 4University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Endocrinology, Groningen, the Netherlands
  • 5University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Neuroscience, Groningen, the Netherlands
  • 6VU University, VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  • 7University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  • 8University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, Groningen, the Netherlands
  • 9Department of Cardiology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort, the Netherlands
JAMA. 2014;311(15):1526-1535. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.3315
Abstract

Importance  Metformin treatment is associated with improved outcome after myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes. In animal experimental studies metformin preserves left ventricular function.

Objective  To evaluate the effect of metformin treatment on preservation of left ventricular function in patients without diabetes presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Design, Setting, and Participants  Double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted among 380 patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for STEMI at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands, between January 1, 2011, and May 26, 2013.

Interventions  Metformin hydrochloride (500 mg) (n = 191) or placebo (n = 189) twice daily for 4 months.

Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary efficacy measure was left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after 4 months, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. A secondary efficacy measure was the N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration after 4 months. The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE; the combined end point of death, reinfarction, or target-lesion revascularization) was recorded until 4 months as a secondary efficacy measure.

Results  At 4 months, all patients were alive and none were lost to follow-up. LVEF was 53.1% (95% CI, 51.6%-54.6%) in the metformin group (n = 135), compared with 54.8% (95% CI, 53.5%-56.1%) (P = .10) in the placebo group (n = 136). NT-proBNP concentration was 167 ng/L in the metformin group (interquartile range [IQR], 65-393 ng/L) and 167 ng/L in the placebo group (IQR, 74-383 ng/L) (P = .66). MACE were observed in 6 patients (3.1%) in the metformin group and in 2 patients (1.1%) in the placebo group (P = .16). Creatinine concentration (79 µmol/L [IQR, 70-87 µmol/L] vs 79 µmol/L [IQR, 72-89 µmol/L], P = .61) and glycated hemoglobin (5.9% [IQR, 5.6%-6.1%] vs 5.9% [IQR, 5.7%-6.1%], P = .15) were not significantly different between both groups. No cases of lactic acidosis were observed.

Conclusions and Relevance  Among patients without diabetes presenting with STEMI and undergoing primary PCI, the use of metformin compared with placebo did not result in improved LVEF after 4 months. The present findings do not support the use of metformin in this setting.

Trial Registration  clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01217307.

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