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Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, Rimm EB, et al. A Prospective Study of Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Symptomatic Gallstone Disease in Men. JAMA. 1999;281(22):2106–2112. doi:10.1001/jama.281.22.2106
Author Affiliations: From the Departments of Nutrition (Drs Leitzmann, Willett, Rimm, Stampfer, and Giovannucci), Epidemiology (Drs Leitzmann, Willett, Rimm, Stampfer, Spiegelman, Colditz, and Giovannucci), and Biostatistics (Dr Spiegelman), Harvard School of Public Health and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital (Drs Willett, Stampfer, Colditz, and Giovannucci), Boston, Mass.
Context Coffee has several metabolic effects that could reduce
the risk of gallstone formation.
Objective To examine the association between coffee consumption
and the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in men.
Design and Setting The Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a
prospective cohort study, in which the consumption of coffee and other
caffeinated drinks was assessed starting in 1986 as part of the
131-item food frequency questionnaire given to US male health
professionals with follow-up through 1996.
Participants A total of 46,008 men, aged 40 to 75 years in
1986, without history of gallstone disease.
Main Outcome Measures Newly symptomatic gallstone disease
(diagnosed by ultrasonography or x-ray) or a cholecystectomy.
Results During 404,166 person-years of follow-up, 1081
subjects reported symptomatic gallstone disease, of whom 885 required
cholecystectomy. After adjusting for other known or suspected risk
factors, compared with men who did not consume regular coffee in 1986
and 1990, the adjusted relative risk (RR) for those who consistently
drank 2 to 3 cups of regular coffee per day was 0.60 (95% confidence
interval [CI], 0.42-0.86) and for those who drank 4 or more cups per
day the RR was 0.55 (95% CI, 0.33-0.92). All coffee brewing methods
showed a decreased risk. The risk of symptomatic gallstone disease also
declined with increasing caffeine intake (P for
trend=.005). After controlling for known or suspected
risk factors, the RR for men in the highest category of caffeine intake
(>800 mg/d) compared with men in the lowest category (≤25 mg/d) was
0.55 (95% CI, 0.35-0.87). In contrast, decaffeinated coffee was not
associated with a decreased risk.
Conclusions In this cohort of US men, coffee consumption may have
helped to prevent symptomatic gallstone disease.
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