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Pereira MA, Jacobs, Jr DR, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Kartashov AI, Ludwig DS. Dairy Consumption, Obesity, and the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Young Adults: The CARDIA Study. JAMA. 2002;287(16):2081–2089. doi:10.1001/jama.287.16.2081
Author Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital, and Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School (Drs Pereira and Ludwig), and Clinical Research Program, Children's Hospital (Dr Kartashov), Boston, Mass; Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, and Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (Dr Jacobs); Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Ill (Dr Van Horn); University of Utah Medical School, Salt Lake City (Dr Slattery).
Context Components of the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), including obesity,
glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors
for type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Although diet has been postulated to
influence IRS, the independent effects of dairy consumption on development
of this syndrome have not been investigated.
Objective To examine associations between dairy intake and incidence of IRS, adjusting
for confounding lifestyle and dietary factors.
Design The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study,
a population-based prospective study.
Setting and Participants General community sample from 4 US metropolitan areas of 3157 black
and white adults aged 18 to 30 years who were followed up from 1985-1986 to
Main Outcome Measure Ten-year cumulative incidence of IRS and its association with dairy
consumption, measured by diet history interview.
Results Dairy consumption was inversely associated with the incidence of all
IRS components among individuals who were overweight (body mass index ≥25
kg/m2) at baseline but not among leaner individuals (body mass
index <25 kg/m2). The adjusted odds of developing IRS (2 or
more components) were 72% lower (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval,
0.14-0.58) among overweight individuals in the highest (≥35 times per week,
24/102 individuals) compared with the lowest (<10 times per week, 85/190
individuals) category of dairy consumption. Each daily occasion of dairy consumption
was associated with a 21% lower odds of IRS (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence
interval, 0.70-0.88). These associations were similar for blacks and whites
and for men and women. Other dietary factors, including macronutrients and
micronutrients, did not explain the association between dairy intake and IRS.
Conclusions Dietary patterns characterized by increased dairy consumption have a
strong inverse association with IRS among overweight adults and may reduce
risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
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