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Holt VL, Kernic MA, Lumley T, Wolf ME, Rivara FP. Civil Protection Orders and Risk of Subsequent Police-Reported Violence. JAMA. 2002;288(5):589–594. doi:10.1001/jama.288.5.589
Author Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology (Drs Holt, Kernic, Wolf, and Rivara) and Department of Biostatistics (Dr Lumley), School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington; Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Washington (Dr Rivara); and Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center, Seattle, Wash (Drs Holt, Kernic, Wolf, and Rivara).
Context Approximately 1.5 million US women experience intimate partner violence
annually. Approximately 20% of these women obtain civil protection orders,
but the effectiveness of such orders in preventing future violence is unclear.
Objective To assess associations between obtaining a protection order and risk
of subsequent police-reported intimate partner violence.
Design, Setting, and Subjects Retrospective cohort study of 2691 adult female residents of Seattle,
Wash, with an incident of male intimate partner violence reported to the Seattle
Police Department between August 1, 1998, and December 31, 1999.
Main Outcome Measure Relative risk (RR) of police-reported physical and psychological abuse
in the 12 months following the index incident according to protection order
status (temporary protection order, usually in effect for 2 weeks; permanent
protection order, usually in effect for 12 months; or no protection order).
Results Overall rates of police-reported physical and psychological abuse in
the 12 months of follow-up were 13.5 per 100 person-years and 12.3 per 100
person-years, respectively. After controlling for cohabitation at time of
index incident and index incident offense type, women with temporary protection
orders in effect were more likely than women without protection orders to
be psychologically abused (RR in the first 6 months after the index incident,
4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-7.2; RR in the entire 12 months after
the index incident, 4.9; 95% CI, 2.8-8.6), while women with permanent protection
orders in effect were less likely than those without orders to be physically
abused (RR in the first 6 months, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-1.1; RR in the entire 12
months, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8).
Conclusions Permanent, but not temporary, protection orders are associated with
a significant decrease in risk of police-reported violence against women by
their male intimate partners.
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