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Tuomilehto J, Hu G, Bidel S, Lindström J, Jousilahti P. Coffee Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Middle-aged Finnish Men and Women. JAMA. 2004;291(10):1213–1219. doi:10.1001/jama.291.10.1213
Author Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, National Public Health Institute (Drs Tuomilehto, Hu, and Bidel, and Ms Lindström), Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki (Drs Tuomilehto, Hu, and Jousilahti), and Institute of Biomedicine (Dr Bidel), Helsinki, Finland.
Context Only a few studies of coffee consumption and diabetes mellitus (DM)
have been reported, even though coffee is the most consumed beverage in the
Objective To determine the relationship between coffee consumption and the incidence
of type 2 DM among Finnish individuals, who have the highest coffee consumption
in the world.
Design, Setting, and Participants A prospective study from combined surveys conducted in 1982, 1987, and
1992 of 6974 Finnish men and 7655 women aged 35 to 64 years without history
of stroke, coronary heart disease, or DM at baseline, with 175 682 person-years
of follow-up. Coffee consumption and other study parameters were determined
at baseline using standardized measurements.
Main Outcome Measures Hazard ratios (HRs) for the incidence of type 2 DM were estimated for
different levels of daily coffee consumption.
Results During a mean follow-up of 12 years, there were 381 incident cases of
type 2 DM. After adjustment for confounding factors (age, study year, body
mass index, systolic blood pressure, education, occupational, commuting and
leisure-time physical activity, alcohol and tea consumption, and smoking),
the HRs of DM associated with the amount of coffee consumed daily (0-2, 3-4,
5-6, 7-9, ≥10 cups) were 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-1.05),
0.39 (95% CI, 0.25-0.60), 0.39 (95% CI, 0.20-0.74), and 0.21 (95% CI, 0.06-0.69)
(P for trend<.001) in women, and 1.00, 0.73 (95%
CI, 0.47-1.13), 0.70 (95% CI, 0.45-1.05), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.40-1.12), and 0.45
(95% CI, 0.25-0.81) (P for trend = .12) in men, respectively.
In both sexes combined, the multivariate-adjusted inverse association was
significant (P for trend <.001) and persisted
when stratified by younger and older than 50 years; smokers and never smokers;
healthy weight, overweight, and obese participants; alcohol drinker and nondrinker;
and participants drinking filtered and nonfiltered coffee.
Conclusion Coffee drinking has a graded inverse association with the risk of type
2 DM; however, the reasons for this risk reduction associated with coffee
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