Mortality Associated With Aprotinin During 5 Years Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery | Cardiology | JAMA | JAMA Network
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Original Contribution
February 7, 2007

Mortality Associated With Aprotinin During 5 Years Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Ischemia Research and Education Foundation, San Bruno, Calif (Drs Mangano, Miao, Titov, and Dietzel); Department of Anesthesia, Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, England (Dr Vuylsteke); Department of Anesthesia, Escorts Heart Institute, New Delhi, India (Dr Juneja); Department of Cardiac Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Institute of Cardiology, Bucharest, Romania (Dr Filipescu); Klinik und Poliklinik für Anaesthesiologie und Spezielle Intensivmedizin, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany (Dr Hoeft); Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University, New Haven, Conn (Dr Fontes); Department of Cardiac Anesthesia, St Luke's Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY (Dr Hillel); Institut für Anaesthesiologie, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, Munich, Germany (Dr Ott); Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco (Dr Levin). Dr Tudor is now with ALZA Corporation, Mountain View, Calif, and Dr Fontes is now with Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY.

JAMA. 2007;297(5):471-479. doi:10.1001/jama.297.5.471

Context Acute safety concerns have been raised recently regarding certain hemorrhage-sparing medications commonly used in cardiac surgery. However, no comprehensive data exist regarding their associations with long-term mortality.

Objective To contrast long-term all-cause mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery according to use of 2 lysine analog antifibrinolytics (aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid), the serine protease inhibitor aprotinin, or no antibleeding agent.

Design, Setting, and Participants Observational study of mortality conducted between November 11, 1996, and December 7, 2006. Following index hospitalization (4374 patients; 69 medical centers), survival was prospectively assessed at 6 weeks, 6 months, and annually for 5 years after CABG surgery among 3876 patients enrolled in a 62-center international cohort study. The associations of survival with hemorrhage-sparing medications were compared using multivariable analyses including propensity adjustments.

Main Outcome Measure Death (all-cause) over 5 years.

Results Aprotinin treatment (223 deaths among 1072 patients [20.8% 5-year mortality]) was associated with significantly increased mortality compared with control (128 deaths among 1009 patients [12.7%]; covariate adjusted hazard ratio for death, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.85), whereas neither aminocaproic acid (132 deaths among 834 patients [15.8%]; adjusted hazard ratio for death, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.33) nor tranexamic acid (65 deaths among 442 patients [14.7%]; adjusted hazard ratio for death, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.45) was associated with increased mortality. In multivariable logistic regression, either with propensity adjustment or without, aprotinin was independently predictive of 5-year mortality (adjusted odds ratio with propensity adjustment, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.93; P = .005) among patients with diverse risk profiles, as well as among those surviving their index hospitalization. Neither aminocaproic nor tranexamic acid was associated with increased risk of death.

Conclusions These findings indicate that in addition to the previously reported acute renal and vascular safety concerns, aprotinin use is associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality following CABG surgery. Use of aprotinin among patients undergoing CABG surgery does not appear prudent because safer and less expensive alternatives (ie, aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid) are available.