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Schjerning Olsen A, Gislason GH, McGettigan P, et al. Association of NSAID Use With Risk of Bleeding and Cardiovascular Events in Patients Receiving Antithrombotic Therapy After Myocardial Infarction. JAMA. 2015;313(8):805–814. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.0809
Antithrombotic treatment is indicated for use in patients after myocardial infarction (MI); however, concomitant use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) could pose safety concerns.
To examine the risk of bleeding and cardiovascular events among patients with prior MI taking antithrombotic drugs and for whom NSAID therapy was then prescribed.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Using nationwide administrative registries in Denmark (2002-2011), we studied patients 30 years or older admitted with first-time MI and alive 30 days after discharge. Subsequent treatment with aspirin, clopidogrel, or oral anticoagulants and their combinations, as well as ongoing concomitant NSAID use, was determined.
Use of NSAIDs with ongoing antithrombotic treatment after first-time MI.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Risk of bleeding (requiring hospitalization) or a composite cardiovascular outcome (cardiovascular death, nonfatal recurrent MI, and stroke) according to ongoing NSAID and antithrombotic therapy, calculated using adjusted time-dependent Cox regression models.
We included 61 971 patients (mean age, 67.7 [SD, 13.6] years; 63% men); of these, 34% filled at least 1 NSAID prescription. The number of deaths during a median follow-up of 3.5 years was 18 105 (29.2%). A total of 5288 bleeding events (8.5%) and 18 568 cardiovascular events (30.0%) occurred. The crude incidence rates of bleeding (events per 100 person-years) were 4.2 (95% CI, 3.8-4.6) with concomitant NSAID treatment and 2.2 (95% CI, 2.1-2.3) without NSAID treatment, whereas the rates of cardiovascular events were 11.2 (95% CI, 10.5-11.9) and 8.3 (95% CI, 8.2-8.4). The multivariate-adjusted Cox regression analysis found increased risk of bleeding with NSAID treatment compared with no NSAID treatment (hazard ratio, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.81-2.26]), and the cardiovascular risk was also increased (hazard ratio, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.30-1.49]). An increased risk of bleeding and cardiovascular events was evident with concomitant use of NSAIDs, regardless of antithrombotic treatment, types of NSAIDs, or duration of use.
Conclusions and Relevance
Among patients receiving antithrombotic therapy after MI, the use of NSAIDs was associated with increased risk of bleeding and excess thrombotic events, even after short-term treatment. More research is needed to confirm these findings; however, physicians should exercise appropriate caution when prescribing NSAIDs for patients who have recently experienced MI.
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