State Vaccination Requirements for HPV and Other Vaccines for Adolescents, 1990-2015 | Adolescent Medicine | JAMA | JAMA Network
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Curtis  CR, Dorell  C, Yankey  D,  et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  National human papillomavirus vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years-National Immunization Survey—Teen, United States, 2011.  MMWR Surveill Summ. 2014;63(suppl 2):61-70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Elam-Evans  LD, Yankey  D, Jeyarajah  J,  et al; Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  National, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years—United States, 2013.  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(29):625-633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. State vaccination requirements. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/imz-managers/laws/state-reqs.html. Accessibility verified June 9, 2015.
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Schwartz  JL, Caplan  AL, Faden  RR, Sugarman  J.  Lessons from the failure of human papillomavirus vaccine state requirements.  Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007;82(6):760-763.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Savage  L.  Proposed HPV vaccine mandates rile health experts across the country.  J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99(9):665-666.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Association of Immunization Managers. Position statement: school and child care immunization requirements. http://www.immunizationmanagers.org/resource/resmgr/files/aimpositionstatement.pdf. Accessibility verified June 10, 2015.
Research Letter
July 14, 2015

State Vaccination Requirements for HPV and Other Vaccines for Adolescents, 1990-2015

Author Affiliations
  • 1University Center for Human Values, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
JAMA. 2015;314(2):185-186. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.6041

Eight years after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were first recommended in the United States, vaccination coverage is substantially below the Healthy People 2020 target of 80%.1 Data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that 37.6% of adolescent girls and 13.9% of adolescent boys had completed the 3-dose series in 2013.2 Recent efforts to address these deficits emphasize that HPV vaccines should not be viewed or treated differently than other routinely recommended vaccines.1,2

School requirements are a mainstay of US vaccination policy, widely used by states to promote high vaccination rates. Depending on the vaccine, requirements may exist for attendance at day care, preschool, kindergarten, or higher grade levels.3 Attention to their potential value has been largely absent from recent discussions of strategies to improve HPV vaccination rates. However, requirements were extensively discussed following the approval of the first HPV vaccine in 2006.4

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