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In This Issue of JAMA
March 26, 2019

Highlights

JAMA. 2019;321(12):1135-1137. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.15256

Research

Some evidence suggests that preterm infants may require less mechanical ventilation if they receive positive pressure ventilation with inflations of 5 seconds or more at the time of birth. Kirpalani and colleagues randomized 460 extremely preterm infants and found that sustained inflations at birth, compared with standard intermittent positive pressure ventilation, did not reduce the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death at 36 weeks’ postmenstrual age. In an Editorial, Perlman discusses the inherent complexities of intervention studies for the premature infant population.

Editorial

CME and Visual Abstract

Delivery of mesenchymal precursor cells into failing hearts has been associated with improvement in the geometry and function of the left ventricle. In a randomized trial that enrolled 159 patients with advanced heart failure undergoing implantation of a left ventricular assist device, Yau and colleagues for the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network found that intramyocardial injections of mesenchymal precursor cells did not facilitate temporary weaning from left ventricular assist device support at 6 months.

Editor’s Note

It is unclear whether guidelines for the management of extremely preterm births in Sweden have affected infant survival. Norman and colleagues compared outcomes for all 2206 births of extremely preterm infants in Sweden and found that 1-year survival and survival without major neonatal morbidity improved between 2004-2007 and 2014-2016. In an Editorial, Rysavy and Ehret suggest that long-term follow-up is critical for children born preterm and their families.

Editorial

CME

Clinical Review & Education

In-hospital cardiac arrest is common and often fatal. Andersen and colleagues review the clinical management of patients during and after cardiac arrest and discuss opportunities for quality improvement.

CME

In this JAMA Guide to Statistics and Methods, Senn and Lewis discuss analytic methods to adjust for systematic differences by treatment site, such as differences in patient populations, ancillary treatment practices, or other factors.

This JAMA Clinical Challenge by Haley and Tyring presents a 22-year-old man with an 8-year history of painful grouped vesicular and verrucous lesions in a single anatomical location. What would you do next?

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