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Because of fluoroquinolone-associated safety concerns and high rates of bacterial resistance, new treatment options are needed for patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Alexander and colleagues randomized 738 patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and found that lefamulin was noninferior to moxifloxacin for the outcome of early clinical response.
Editor’s Note and Related Article
Visual Abstract and CME
Patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia are at high risk of invasive fungal disease. In a randomized trial by Fisher and colleagues that enrolled 517 participants with acute myeloid leukemia, prophylaxis with caspofungin, compared with fluconazole, resulted in a significantly lower incidence of proven or probable invasive fungal disease.
Primary open-angle glaucoma is more common and more severe in patients of African ancestry, but genetic variants have not been identified in this disproportionately affected population. In a genome-wide association study of 2320 individuals with primary open-angle glaucoma and 2121 control individuals, the Genetics of Glaucoma in People of African Descent Consortium found that variations at the APBB2 locus were associated with primary open-angle glaucoma by ancestry.
European guidelines for end-of-life practices have changed over the past decade. Sprung and colleagues conducted a prospective observational study of 13 625 patients who had treatment limitations or died in 22 European intensive care units in 2015-2016 and found that limitations in life-prolonging therapies occurred significantly more frequently and death without limitations in life-prolonging therapies occurred significantly less frequently than in the period 1999-2000. An Editorial by Cox and colleagues discusses opportunities for improving the quality of patient-centered end-of-life care.
In this JAMA Guide to Statistics and Methods, Guo and Rotter explain how genome-wide association studies home in on genes that may affect the likelihood of disease.
Adolescence is a critical period for managing obesity. This JAMA Insights article by Cardel and colleagues discusses an integrated continuum of care that begins with the least invasive treatment.
Lefamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. This Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics discusses the efficacy and safety of lefamulin for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.
Highlights. JAMA. 2019;322(17):1625–1627. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.15575
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