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Article
May 28, 1932

LAXATIVE EFFECTS OF WHEAT BRAN AND "WASHED BRAN" IN HEALTHY MEN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

Author Affiliations

NEW HAVEN, CONN.

From the Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Yale University.

JAMA. 1932;98(22):1866-1875. doi:10.1001/jama.1932.02730480016005
Abstract

The importance of ingestion of a reasonable amount of food "roughage" for the maintenance of satisfactory intestinal motility is widely appreciated. It is quite generally recognized that wheat bran contains a relatively large amount of indigestible material, notably cellulose. Knowledge of these facts has resulted in a considerable use by human beings of bran as a source of food roughage. Extreme views regarding such use have been expressed in the literature. Kellogg1 is one of those who attribute numerous ills to constipation and therefore advocate the ingestion of large amounts of various sources of "indigestible residue," including bran, as a corrective and preventive measure. Alvarez2 has challenged this view, and, as evidence for his position, has cited the results of a questionnaire circulated among physicians concerning the therapeutic use of bran. It may be questioned whether such a method of approach to the problem as Alvarez has employed

References
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Kellogg, J. H.:  The New Dietetics, Battle Creek, Mich. , Modern Medicine Publishing Company, 1921.
2.
Alvarez, W. C.:  Minnesota Med. 14:296 ( (April) ) 1931.
3.
Jordan, W. H.; Patten, E. B., and Hart, A. J.:  Am. J. Physiol. 16: 268, 1906.
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Mendel, L. B., and Underhill, F. P.:  Am. J. Physiol. 17: 75, 1906.
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Williams, G. A.:  Am. J. Physiol. 83: 1 ( (Dec.) ) 1927.
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In the writing of this paper the question arose as to the correct use of the word laxation. Investigation revealed that this word is not listed in the two standard medical dictionaries that were consulted; nor was it found in the Winston "Simplified Dictionary." In Webster's New International Dictionary (page 1223) laxation is defined as "the act of loosening, slacking or relaxing, or state of being loosened, slackened or relaxed." The definition given in the Funk and Wagnalls New Standard Dictionary of the English Language is essentially the same. It will be noticed in the definition cited that there is no specific reference to the alimentary tract. In this paper the writers have decided to use the word laxation to signify the act of loosening the bowels as well as the state or condition or degree of loosening characteristic of the bowels.
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Goltz, Friedrich:  Arch. f. d. g. Physiol. 8: 160, 1874.
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Official methods of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 1925, were used.
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Thorup, D. W., and Carlson, A. J.:  Am. J. Physiol. 84: 90 ( (Feb.) ) 1928.
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Hines, L. E.; Lueth, H. C., and Ivy, A. C.:  Motility of the Rectum in Normal and in Constipated Subjects ,  Arch. Int. Med. 44: 147 ( (July) ) 1929.Crossref
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Geib, Daniel; and Jones, J. D.:  Unprecedented Case of Constipation ,  J. A. M. A. 38: 1304 ( (May 17) ) 1902.Crossref
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Falcon-Lesses, Mark:  J. Nutrition 2: 295 ( (Jan.) ) 1930.
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Schmidt, E. A., and Strasburger, Julius:  Die Fäzes des Menschen , ed. 3, Berlin, August Hirschwald, 1910, pp. 211-216.
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Rubner, Max:  Ztschr. f. Biol. 19: 67, 1883.
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In table on page 67 of Rubner's paper.
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