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November 20, 1948


Author Affiliations


From the Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School and the Children's Medical Center, Boston.

JAMA. 1948;138(12):859-865. doi:10.1001/jama.1948.02900120001001

Physiologic reasoning underlies sound practice in all fields of medicine today. But physiology, in turn, is dependent on chemistry for insight into the fundamental nature of the phenomena of health and disease. The work of a distinguished company of clinicians and medical scientists over a long period of years has evolved our present state of knowledge of the multiple functions of the blood and of their dependence on the molecular properties of the specific proteins by which they are mediated.

The development of blood derivatives stems logically from this concept that each function of the blood is due to one or more specific components. Great progress has been made in the decade since plasma first came into general clinical use as a derivative of blood in which its osmotic and certain of its nutritional properties could be preserved for use when separated from the more labile cells. Chemical and physical

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Koechlin, B. A.: Crystallization and Characteristics of a Metal Binding β1-Pseudoglobulin from Human Plasma, to be published
Schade, A. L., and Caroline, L.:  Iron-Binding Component in Human Blood Plasma ,  Science 104: 340, 1946.Crossref
Surgenor, D. M.; Koechlin, B. A., and Strong, L. E.:  The Metal Combining Globulin of Human Plasma: XXXVII. Chemical, Clinical and Immunobiological Studies of the Products of Human Plasma Fractionation ,  J. Clin. Investigation , to be published.
Rath, C. E., and Finch, C. A.:  Measurement of Iron Binding Capacity of Serum in Man: XXXVIII. Serum Iron Transport ,  J. Clin. Investigation , to be published.
Cartwright, G. D.; Black, P., and Wintrobe, M. M.:  Studies on the Iron Binding Capacity of Serum: XXXIX. The Anemia of Infection ,  J. Clin. Investigation , to be published.
Gibson, J. G., II; Evans, R. D.; Aub, J. C.; Sack, T., and Peacock, W. C.:  The Post-Transfusion Survival of Preserved Human Erythrocytes Stored as Whole Blood, or in Resuspension, After Removal of Plasma, by Means of Two Isotopes of Radioactive Iron ,  J. Clin. Investigation 26: 715-738, 1947.Crossref
Flynn, F.: Personal communication to the author
Taylor, E. S.; Thalhimer, W., and Cooksey, W. B.:  The Organization of a Red Blood Cell Transfusion Service ,  J. A. M. A. 124:958-690 ( (April 1) ) 1944.Crossref
Cooksey, W. B., and Horwitz, W. H.:  The Use of Salvaged Red Cells ,  J. A. M. A. (April 1) 124:961-964, 1944.Crossref
Rapoport, S.:  Dimensional, Osmotic, and Chemical Changes of Erythrocytes in Stored Blood: I. Blood Preserved in Sodium Citrate, Neutral and Acid-Citrate-Glucose (ACD) Mixtures ,  J. Clin. Investigation 26:591-615, 1947Crossref
 II. Evaluation of Several Acid and Neutral Preservation Mixtures , Rapoport J. Clin. Investigation 26: 616-621, 1947Crossref
 III. Comparison of Three Dilutions of Acid Citrate-Glucose Solution (ACD) , Rapoport J. Clin. Investigation 26:622-628, 1947.Crossref
Strumia, M. M.; Blake, A. D., and Wicks, W. A.:  The Preservation of Whole Blood ,  J. Clin. Investigation 26:667-671, 1947.Crossref
Strumia, M. M.; Blake, A. D., and McGraw, J. J., Jr.:  An Acid Citrate-Dextrose Solution with Low Water Volume and Low Dextrose Concentration ,  J. Clin. Investigation 26:678-686, 1947.Crossref
Ross, J. F.; Finch, C. A.; Peacock, W. C., and Sammons, M. E.:  The in Vitro Preservation and Post-Transfusion Survival of Stored Blood ,  J. Clin. Investigation 26: 687-703, 1947.Crossref
Gibson, J. G., II; Peacock, W. C.; Evans, R. D.; Sack, T., and Aub, J. C.:  The Rate of Post-Transfusion Loss of Non-Viable Stored Human Erythrocytes and the Reutilization of Hemoglobin-Derived Radio-Active Iron ,  J. Clin. Investigation 26:739-746, 1947.Crossref
Hamilton, P. B.; Farr, L. E.; Hiller, A., and Van Slyke, D. D.:  Preparation of Hemoglobin Solutions for Intravenous Infusions ,  J. Exper. Med. 86: 455-463, 1947.Crossref
Farr, L. E.; Hiller, A., and Van Slyke, D. D.:  Preparation of Dried Hemoglobin Without Loss of Activity ,  J. Exper. Med. 86: 465-475, 1947.Crossref
Hamilton, P. B.; Hiller, A., and Van Slyke, D. D.:  Renal Effects of Hemoglobin Infusions in Dogs in Hemorrhagic Shock ,  J. Exper. Med. 86:477-487, 1947.Crossref
Lalich, J. J.:  The Influence of Injections of Homologous Hemoglobin on the Kidneys of Normal and Dehydrated Animals ,  J. Exper. Med. 86:153-158, 1947Crossref
 The Influence of Available Fluid on the Production of Experimental Hemoglobinuric Nephrosis in Rabbits , Lalich J. Exper. Med. 87:157-162, 1948.Crossref
Rather, L. J.:  Renal Athrocytosis and Intracellular Digestion of Intraperitoneally Injected Hemoglobin in Rats ,  J. Exper. Med. 87: 163-173, 1948.Crossref
Harrison, H. E.; Bunting, H.; Ordway, N. K., and Albrink, W. S.:  The Pathogenesis of the Renal Injury Produced in the Dog by Hemoglobin or Methemoglobin ,  J. Exper. Med. 86: 339-356, 1947.Crossref
Strumia, M. M.; Chornock, F. W.; Blake, A. D., and Karr, W. C.:  The Use of "Modified Globin" from Human Erythrocytes as a Plasma Substitute ,  Am. J. M.Sc. 209:436-443, 1945.Crossref
Strumia, M. M.; Chornock, F. W.; Blake, A. D., and Reider, H. C.:  The Use of "Modified Globin" from Human Erythrocytes in Hypoproteinemias ,  Am. J. M.Sc. 211:51-62, 1946.Crossref
Cournand, A.; Noble, R. B.; Breed, E. S.; Lauson, H. D.; Baldwin, E. DeF.; Pinchot, G. B., and Richards, D. W., Jr.:  Clinical Use of Concentrated Human Serum Albumin in Shock, and Comparison with Whole Blood and with Rapid Saline Infusion ,  J. Clin. Investigation 23: 491-506, 1944.Crossref
Beeson, P. B.:  Jaundice Occurring One to Four Months After Transfusion of Blood or Plasma ,  J. A. M. A. 121: 1332-1334 ( (April 24) ) 1943.Crossref
Oliphant, J. W., and Hollaender, A.:  Homologous Serum Jaundice: Experimental Inactivation of Etiologic Agent in Serum by Ultraviolet Irradiation ,  Pub. Health Rep. 61:598-602, 1946.Crossref
Wolf, A. M.; Mason, J.; Fitzpatrick, W. J.; Schwartz, S. O., and Levinson, S. O.:  Ultraviolet Irradiation of Human Plasma to Control Homologous Serum Jaundice ,  J. A. M. A. 135:476-477 ( (Oct. 25) ) 1947.Crossref
Blanchard, M. C.; Stokes, J., Jr.; Hampil, B.; Wade, G. R., and Spizizen, J.:  II. The Inactivation of Hepatitis Virus SH (Homologous Serum Hepatitis) by Ultraviolet Irradiation ,  J. A. M. A. (Oct. 25) 138:341-343, 1948.Crossref
Grossman, E. B.; Stewart, S. G., and Stokes, J., Jr.:  Post-Transfusion Hepatitis in Battle Casualties and Study of Its Prophylaxis by Means of Human Immune Serum Globulin ,  J. A. M. A. 129:991-994 ( (Dec. 8) ) 1945.Crossref
Blanchard, M., Jr.; Stokes, J., Jr.; Neefe, J. R.; Gellis, S. S., and Wade, G. R., Jr.:  I. Studies in the Protective Value of Gamma Globulin in Homologous Serum Hepatitis SH Virus ,  J. A. M. A. (Dec. 8) , 138:336-341, 1948.Crossref
Cohn, E. J.; Strong, L. E.; Hughes, W. L., Jr.; Mulford, D. L.; Ashworth, J. N.; Melin, M., and Taylor, H. L.:  Preparation and Properties of Serum and Plasma Proteins: IV. A System for the Separation into Fractions of the Protein and Lipoprotein Components of Biological Tissues and Fluids ,  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 68:459-475, 1946.Crossref
Mulford, D. J.:  Derivatives of Blood Plasma ,  Ann. Rev. Physiol. 9: 327-356, 1947.Crossref
Bering, E. A., Jr.:  The Development of Fibrin Foam as a Hemostatic Agent for Use in Conjunction with Human Thrombin ,  J. Clin. Investigation 23: 586-591, 1944.Crossref
Bailey, O. T.; Ingraham, F. D.; Swenson, O.; Lowrey, S. J., and Bering, F. J.:  Human Fibrin Foam with Thrombin as a Hemostatic Agent in General Surgery ,  Surgery 18:347-369, 1945.
Jenkins, H. P., and Clarke, J. S.:  Gelatin Sponge, a New Hemostatic Substance ,  Arch. Surg. 51:253-262 ( (Nov.) -Dec.) 1945.Crossref
Pilcher, C., and Meacham, W. F.:  Absorbable Gelatin Sponge and Thrombin for Hemostasis in Neurosurgery ,  Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 81:365-370, 1945.
Putnam, T. J.:  The Use of Thrombin on Soluble Cellulose in Neuro-Surgery: Clinical Application ,  Ann. Surg. 118: 127, 1943.
Frantz, V. K.; Clarke, H. T., and Latles, R.:  Hemostasis with Absorbable Gauze Oxidized Cellulose ,  Ann. Surg. 120:181-198, 1944.
Ferry, J. D., and Morrison, P. R.:  Preparation and Properties of Serum and Plasma Proteins: IX. Human Fibrin in the Form of an Elastic Film ,  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69:400-409, 1947.
Ferry, J. D.; Singer, M.; Morrison, P. R.; Porsche, J. D., and Kutz, R. L.:  Preparation and Properties of Serum and Plasma Proteins: X. Modification of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Fibrin Film by Heat Treatment ,  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69: 409-416, 1947.
Ingraham, F. D.; Bailey, O. T., and Cobb, C. A., Jr.:  The Use of Fibrin Film as a Dural Substitute ,  J. A. M. A. 128: 1088-1091 ( (Aug. 11) ) 1945.
Ingraham, F. D.; Alexander, E., Jr., and Matson, D. D.:  Polyethylene, a New Synthetic Plastic for Use in Surgery ,  J. A. M. A. 135: 82-87 ( (Sept. 13) ) 1947.
Cronkhite, E. P.; Lozner, E. L., and Deaver, J. M.:  The Use of Thrombin and Fibrinogen in Skin Grafts ,  J. A. M. A. 124:976-987 ( (April 1) ) 1944.
Dees, J. E.:  Fibrinogen Coagulum as an Aid in the Operative Removal of Renal Calculi ,  J. Clin. Investigation 23:576-580, 1944.Crossref
Diamond, L. K., and Borges, W. H., Jr.: Congenital Afibrinogenemia, to be published.
Taylor, F. H. L.; Davidson, C. S.; Tagnon, H. J.; Adams, M. A.; MacDonald, A. H., and Minot, G. R.:  Studies in Blood Coagulation: The Coagulation Properties of Certain Globulin Fractions of Normal Human Serum in Vitro ,  J. Clin. Investigation 24:698-704, 1945.Crossref
Minot, G. R.; Davidson, C. S.; Lewis, J. H.; Tagnon, H. J., and Taylor, F. H. L.:  The Coagulation Defect in Hemophilia: The Effect in Hemophilia of the Parenteral Administration of a Fraction of the Plasma Globulins Rich in Fibrinogen ,  J. Clin. Investigation 24:704-793, 1945.Crossref
Oncley, J. L.; Melin, M.; Cameron, J. W.; Richert, D. W., and Diamond, L. K.:  Methods for the Preparation of Anti-A, Anti-B and Anti-Rh Isoagglutinin Reagents ,  Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sc. 46:899-914, 1946.Crossref
Oncley, J. L.; Melin, M.; Richert, D. A.; Cameron, J. W., and Gross, P. M., Jr.: Preparation and Properties of Serum and Plasma Proteins: The Separation of the Antibodies, lsoagglutinins, Prothrombin, Plasminogen, and X-Protein into Subfractions of Human Plasma, to be published.
Stokes, J., Jr.; Maris, E. P., and Gellis, S. S.:  The Use of Concentrated Normal Human Serum Gamma Globulin (Human Serum Immune Globulin) in the Prevention and Attenuation of Measles ,  J. Clin. Investigation 23:531-541, 1944.Crossref
Janeway, C. A.:  Clinical Use of Products of Human Plasma Fractionation: I. Albumin in Shock and Hypoproteinemia; II. Gamma Globulin in Measles ,  J. A. M. A. 126:674-680 ( (Nov. 11) ) 1944.Crossref
Stokes, J., Jr., and Neefe, J. R.:  The Prevention and Attenuation of Infectious Hepatitis by Gamma Globulin ,  J. A. M. A. 127: 144-145 ( (Jan. 20) ) 1945.Crossref
Gellis, S. S.; Stokes, J., Jr.; Brother, G. M.; Hall, W. M.; Gilmore, H. R.; Beyer, E., and Morrissey, R. A.:  The Use of Human Immune Serum Globulin (Gamma Golbulin) in Infectious (Epidemic) Hepatitis in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations: I. Studies on Prophylaxis in Two Epidemics of Infectious Hepatitis ,  J. A. M. A. 128: 1158-1159 ( (Aug. 18) ) 1945.Crossref
Havens, W. P., Jr., and Paul J. R.:  Prevention of Infectious Hepatitis with Gamma Globulin ,  J. A. M. A. 129: 270-272 ( (Sept. 22) ) 1945.Crossref
McGuinness, A. C.; Peters, M., and Gellis, S. S.:  A Study on the Prevention of Mumps Orchitis by Gamma Globulin ,  Am. J. M. Sc. 210: 661, 1945.Crossref
Lapin, J. H.:  Serum in the Prophylaxis of Contacts and the Treatment of Whooping Cough ,  J. Pediat. 26:555-559, 1945.Crossref
Janeway, C. A.; Gibson, S. T.; Woodruff, L. M.; Heyl, J. T.; Bailey, O. T., and Newhouser, L. R.:  Concentrated Human Serum Albumin ,  J. Clin. Investigation 24:465-491, 1945.
Scatchard, G.; Gibson, L. E.; Hughes, W. L., Jr.; Ashworth, J. A., and Sparrow, A. H.:  The Properties of Solutions of Human Serum Albumin of Low Salt Content ,  J. Clin. Investigation 24:671-698, 1945.Crossref
Gellis, S. S.; Neefe, J. R., Stokes, J., Jr.; Strong, L. E.; Janeway, C. A., and Scatchard, G.:  Inactivation of the Virus of Homologous Serum Hepatitis in Solutions of Normal Human Serum Albumin by Means of Heat ,  J. Clin. Investigation 27:239-244, 1948.Crossref
Janeway, C. A.:  Other Uses of Plasma Fractions with Particular Reference to Serum Albumin ,  Ann. Int. Med. 26:368-376, 1947.Crossref
Stead, E. A., Jr.; Brannon, E. S.; Merrill, A. J., and Warren, J. V.:  Concentrated Human Serum Albumin in the Treatment of Shock ,  Arch. Int. Med. 77: 564-575 ( (May) ) 1946.Crossref
Lowell, A.; Cournand, A., and Richards, D. W., Jr.:  Changes in Plasma Volume and Mean Arterial Pressure After the Intravenous Injection of Concentrated Human Serum Albumin in Thirty-Eight Patients with Oligemia and Hypotension ,  Surg. 22:442-452, 1947.
Hegsted, D. M.; Hay, A. L., and Stare, F. J.:  Studies on the Nutritive Value of Human Plasma Fractions ,  J. Clin. Investigation 24: 657-661, 1945.Crossref
Eckhardt, R. D.; Lewis, J. H.; Murphy, T. L.; Batchelor, W. H., and Davidson, C. S.:  Comparative Studies on the Nutritive Value of Orally and Intravenously Administered Human Serum Albumin ,  J. Clin. Investigation 27:119-134, 1948.Crossref
Albright, F.; Forbes, A. P., and Reifenstein, E. C., Jr.:  The Fate of Plasma Protein Administered Intravenously ,  Tr. A. Am. Physicians 59:221-234, 1946.
Waterhouse, C., and Holler, J.:  Metabolic Studies on Protein Depleted Patients Receiving a Large Part of Their Nitrogen Intake from Human Serum Albumin Administered Intravenously ,  J. Clin. Investigation 27: 560, 1948.Crossref
Moore, F. D.: Personal communication to the author.
Luetscher, J. A., Jr.:  The Effect of a Single Injection of Concentrated Human Serum Albumin on Circulating Proteins and Proteinuria in Nephrosis ,  J. Clin. Investigation 23:365-371, 1944.Crossref
Thorn, G. W.; Armstrong, S. H., Jr.; Dickerson, V. C.; Woodruff, L. M., and Tyler, F. H.:  The Use of Salt-Poor Concentrated Human Serum Albumin Solution in the Treatment of Chronic Bright's Disease ,  J. Clin. Investigation 24: 802-828, 1945.Crossref
Janeway, C. A.; Moll, G. H.; Armstrong, S. H., Jr.; Wallace W. M.; Hallman, N., and Barness, L. A.:  Diuresis in Children with Nephrosis: Comparison of Response to Injection of Normal Human Serum Albumin and to Infection, Particularly Measles ,  Tr. A. Am. Physicians 61, 1948, to be published.
Thorn, G. W.; Armstrong, S. H., Jr., and Davenport, V. D.:  The Use of Salt-Poor Concentrated Human Serum Albumin Solution in the Treatment of Hepatic Cirrhosis ,  J. Clin. Investigation 25:304-323, 1946.Crossref
Kunkel, H. G.; Labby, D. H.; Abrams, E. H., Jr.; Shank, R. E., and Hoagland, C. L.:  The Use of Concentrated Human Serum Albumin in the Treatment of Cirrhosis of the Liver ,  J. Clin. Investigation 27: 305-319, 1948.Crossref
Armstrong, S. H., Jr.:  Mechanism of Action of Serum Albumin Therapy in Internal Medicine ,  Am. J. Med. 4: 390-397, 1948.Crossref
White, J. C.: Personal communication to the author.
Campbell, J. B.: Personal communication to the author.
Cohn, E. J.:  Chemical, Physiological, and Immunological Properties, and Clinical' Uses of Blood Derivatives ,  Experientia 3:125-136, 1947.Crossref
Boyer, P. D.; Lum, F. G.; Ballou, G. A.; Luck, J. M., and Rice, R. G.:  The Combination of Fatty Acids and Related Compounds with Serum Albumin: I. Stabilization Against Heat Denaturation ,  J. Biol. Chem. 162:181-198, 1946.
Davis, B. D., and Dubos, R. J.:  The Binding of Fatty Acids by Serum Albumin, a Protective Growth Factor in Bacteriological Media ,  J. Exper. Med. 86:215-228, 1947.Crossref
Fieser, L. M., and Heymann, H.:  Napthaquinone Anti-Malarials: XIX. Anti-Respiratory Studies of Protein Binders ,  J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. , to be published.
Davis, B. D.:  The Binding of Sulfonamide Drugs by Plasma Proteins, a Factor in Determining the Distribution of Drugs in the Body ,  J. Clin. Investigation 22: 753-762, 1943.Crossref
Derouaux, G.:  Liaison sulphamide-Proteine et passage des sulphamide dans le liquide cephalorachidien ,  Acta. Biol. Belg. 3-4:170-172, 1943.
Hughes, W. L., Jr.:  Preparation and Properties of Serum and Plasma Proteins: XIV. An Alumin Fraction Isolated from Human Plasma as a Crystalline Mercury Salt ,  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69:1836, 1947.Crossref
Tompsett, R.; Schultz, S., and McDermott, W.:  The Relation of Protein Binding to the Pharmacology and Antibacterial Activity of Penicillins: X, G, dihydro F, and K ,  J. Bact. 53: 581-595, 1947.