[Skip to Content]
Sign In
Individual Sign In
Create an Account
Institutional Sign In
OpenAthens Shibboleth
Purchase Options:
[Skip to Content Landing]
Article
December 18, 1967

Bodily Response to Infectious Agents

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine.

JAMA. 1967;202(12):1085-1089. doi:10.1001/jama.1967.03130250067011
Abstract

Infection is one of the salient features of human life, and many important infections are of surgical significance. The development of an understanding of this aspect of medicine is, therefore, an essential part of the education of the medical student. As a matter of fact, this presentation is the result of my sustained interest in this subject which began 35 years ago as a medical student. The ubiquity of infectious agents in man's environment, their propensity for invading the physiologic interior of the body, their potential for producing significant effects on the various bodily functions, their remarkable adaptability to circumstance and newer forms of treatment as introduced, and the very necessity for excluding their presence or controlling their growth to permit surgical treatment and wound healing with acceptable standards, all emphasize the significance of infections in surgical practice and the importance of related education.

The remarkable advances in surgery during

References
1.
Lister, J.:  On a New Method of Treating Compound Fractures, Abscess, etc, With Observations on the Conditions of Suppuration ,  Lancet 1:364, 1867.
2.
Altemeier, W.A.:  Report of the National Conference on Hospital-Acquired Staphylococcal Disease ,  Surgery 45:522-526, 1959.
3.
Altemeier, W.A.:  Problem of Postoperative Wound Infection and Its Significance,  Ann Surg 147:770-774 ( (May) ) 1958.Crossref
4.
Williams. R.E.O., and Shooter. R.A. (eds.):  Infection in Hospitals, Epidemiology and Control , Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Co., 1963.
5.
Altemeier, W.A., and Wadsworth, C.L.:  Penicillin: Its Use in Surgery and Influence on Earlier Types of Chemotherapy ,  Surg Gynec Obstet 84:540-552 ( (April) ) 1947.
6.
Pulaski, E.J.:  Medical Progress ,  New Eng J Med 249:890, 1953.Crossref
7.
Pulaski, E.J.:  Surgical Infections: Prophylaxis, Treatment, Antibiotic Therapy , Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, 1953.
8.
Altemeier, W.A., and Wulsin, J.H.:  Antimicrobial Therapy in Injured Patients ,  JAMA 173:527-533 ( (June 4) ) 1960.Crossref
9.
Altemeier, W.A., and Wulsin, J.H.:  The Use and Abuse of Antibiotics in Surgical Patients ,  J Mich Med Soc 61:851-858, 873 ( (July) ) 1962.
10.
Altemeier, W.A., and Stevenson, J.M.: " Physiology of Wound Healing ," in Davis, L. (ed.):  Christopher's Textbook of Surgery , ed 7, Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1960, pp 22-41.
11.
Altemeier, W.A., and Culbertson, W.R.: " Applied Surgical Bacteriology ," in Moyer, C.A., et al (eds.):  Surgery: Principles and Practice , ed 3, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1966, pp 37-50.
12.
Finland, M.; Jones, W.F.; and Barnes, M.W.:  Occurrence of Serious Bacterial Infections Since Introduction of Antibacterial Agents ,  JAMA 170:2188-2197 ( (Aug 29) ) 1959.Crossref
13.
Howard, J. M., et al.:  Postoperative Wound Infections: The Influence of Ultraviolet Irradiation of the Operating Room and of Various Other Factors ,  Ann Surg 160( (suppl) ):9-192, 1964.Crossref
14.
Altemeier, W.A., and MacMillan, B.G.:  The Dynamics of Infection in Burns (Research in Burns, publication 9), American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1962.
15.
Altemeier, W.A.:  Control of Wound Infection ,  J Roy Coll Surg Edinb 11:271-282 ( (July) ) 1966.
16.
Artz, C.P.; Hummel, R.P.; and MacMillan, B.G.: " Principles of Management of Extensive Burns ," in  Transactions of the International Society of Plastic Surgeons , Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1957, pp 45-49.
17.
Matter, Peter, et al:  Experimental Studies with Reference to Antigen-Antibody Phenomena Following Severe Extensive Burns ,  Ann Surg 157:725-736 ( (May) ) 1963.Crossref
18.
Altemeier, W.A., et al.:  Critical Reevaluation of Antibiotic Therapy in Surgery ,  JAMA 157:305-309 ( (Jan 22) ) 1955.Crossref
19.
Altemeier, W.A., and Culbertson, W.R.: " Surgical Infections ," in Moyer, C.A., et al (eds.):  Surgery: Principles and Practice , ed 3, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1966, pp 51-77.
20.
Barnes, B.A., et al.:  Postoperative Sepsis: Analysis of Factors Associated With Sepsis Following Appendectomy (1937-1959) ,  Ann Surg 156:703-712 ( (Nov) ) 1962.Crossref
21.
Altemeier, W.A.; Hummel, R.P.; and Hill, E.O.:  Prevention of Infection in Colon Surgery ,  Arch Surg 93:226-235 ( (Aug) ) 1966.Crossref
22.
Altemeier, W.A., Culbertson, W.R., and Vetto, M.:  Prophylactic Antibiotic Therapy ,  Arch Surg 71:2-6, 1955.Crossref
23.
Altemeier, W.A.; Todd, J.C.; and Inge, W.W.:  Newer Aspects of Septicemia in Surgical Patients ,  Arch Surg 92:566-572 ( (April) ) 1966.Crossref
24.
Altemeier, W.A.; Todd, J.C.; and Inge, W.W.:  Gram-Negative Sepsis: A Growing Threat ,  Ann Surg 166:530-542 ( (Oct) ) 1967.Crossref
25.
Rogers, D.E.:  A Changing Pattern of Life-Threatening Microbial Disease ,  New Eng J Med 261:677-683, 1959.Crossref
26.
Rothenburg, R.:  Musings on the Image of the Physician, Public Relations, and Other Things ,  Cincinnati J Med 48:8-10 ( (Jan) ) 1967.
27.
Powell, D.E.B.:  Staphylococcal Septicemia in a General Hospital ,  Brit Med J 2:336-339, 1961.Crossref
28.
Hayasaka, H., and Howard, J.M.:  Septic Shock Experimental and Clinical Studies , Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, 1964.
29.
Altemeier, W.A., and Cole, W.R.:  Nature and Treatment of Septic Shock ,  Arch Surg 77:498-507 ( (Oct) ) 1958.Crossref
30.
Gurd, F.N., and Gardner, C. McG.:  Reappraisal of the Treatment of Hemorrhagic Shock ,  Amer J Surg 89:725-729 ( (April) ) 1955.Crossref
31.
Shoemaker, W.C., et al:  Hemodynamic Measurements in Various Types of Clinical Shock ,  Arch Surg 93:189-195 ( (July) ) 1966.Crossref
32.
Weil, M.H., and Spink, W.W.:  The Shock Syndrome Associated With Bacteremia Due to Gram-Negative Bacilli ,  Arch Intern Med 101:184, 1958.Crossref
33.
Altemeier, W.A., et al:  Exotoxin Aspects of Shocks ,  Fed Proc 9( (suppl) ):173-178 (July) 1961.
34.
Hardaway, R.M.:  The Role of the Intravascular Clotting in the Etiology of Shock ,  Ann Surg 155:325-338, 1962.Crossref
35.
Delaunay, A., et al:  The Mechanism of Action of Bacterial Endotoxins ,  J Physiol 40:89, 1948.
36.
Zweifach, F.B., and Thomas, L.:  The Relationship Between the Vascular Manifestations of Shock Produced by Endotoxin, Trauma, and Hemorrhage ,  J Exp Med 106:385-401, 1957.Crossref
37.
Weil, M.H., et al:  Investigations on the Role of the Central Nervous System in Shock Produced by Exdotoxins From Gram-Negative Microorganisms ,  J Lab Clin Med 46:962, 1955.
38.
Freedberg, A.S., et al:  The Cardiovascular Dynamics in Shock Due to Infection ,  J Clin Invest 23:930, 1944.
39.
MacLean, L.D., and Weil, M.H.:  Hypotension (Shock) in Dogs Produced by Escherichia coli Endotoxin ,  Circ Res 4:546-556, 1956.Crossref
40.
Fine, J., et al:  The Bacterial Factor in Traumatic Shock ,  N Eng J Med 260:214-219, 1959.Crossref
41.
Ulin, A.W., and Gollub, S.S. (eds.):  Surgical Bleeding: Handbook for Medicine, Surgery, and Specialties , New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1966.
42.
Berger, J.E.; Hill, E.O.; and Altemeier, W.A.: In Vitro Studies With Precipitated Staphylococcal Toxins, Bact Proc, 1960, p 128.
43.
Murphy, G.P.; Johnston, G.S.; and Pulaski, E.J.:  Renal Effects of Perfusion With Clostridium perfringens Alpha Toxin ,  Surg Gynec Obstet 118:265-267 ( (Feb) ) 1964.
44.
Hamrick, L.W., Jr., and Myers, J.B.:  The Effect of Subfebrile Doses of Bacterial Pyrogens on Splanchnic Metabolism and Cardiac Output ,  J Lab Clin Med 45:568-572, 1955.
45.
Francke, F.E.:  Action of Toxic Doses of the Polysaccharide from Serratia marcescens (Bacillus prodigiosus) on the Dog and Guinea Pig ,  J Nat Cancer Inst 5:185-193, 1944-1945.
46.
Penner, A., and Klein, S.H.:  The Pathogenesis of Experimental Dysentery Intoxication: Production of the Lesion by Cerebral Circulation by the Toxin ,  J Exp Med 96:59-69, 1952.Crossref
47.
Hokfelt, B., et al: " The Participation of the Adrenal Glands in Endotoxin Shock ," in: Bock, K.D. (ed.),  Shock: Pathogenesis and Therapy (An International Symposium) , Springer-Verlag, Berlin: 1962.
48.
Rosenberg, J.C., et al:  Effect of Endotoxin on Plasma Catecholamines in Serum Serotonin ,  Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 102:335-337, 1959.Crossref
49.
Nickerson, M., in discussion, Bein:  Aldosterone and Alteration in Circulatory Reactivity Following Endotoxins ,  Experientia 16:24, 1960.Crossref
×