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December 14, 1984

Interplast: A Successful Model for Anesthesia and Plastic Surgery in Developing Countries

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, Calif.

JAMA. 1984;252(22):3152-3155. doi:10.1001/jama.1984.03350220058032

MEDICINE has traditionally been described as a caring profession. It is in this caring tradition that teams of physicians travel from countries with highly sophisticated medical care systems to developing countries of the world to provide medical care for brief periods. Hospital facilities in the host countries are extremely variable, some being modern by Western standards and others much less so.

In this article it is difficult to fully acknowledge the work of all those pioneering physicians who introduced simple effective anesthetic techniques for use in field conditions. The famous Epstein-Macintosh-Oxford (EMO) vaporizer was a direct result of Sir Robert Macintosh's perception that there was a need for a portable vaporizer in developing countries. With this in mind, the EMO and the Oxford miniature vaporizer (OMV) were designed.1,2 On an equally practical level, the writings of Boulton and Cole3 in the 1960s, as well as the more recent

Macintosh RR:  The Epstein Macintosh Oxford vaporizer for ether .  Br Med J 1955; 2:1054-1057.Crossref
Parkhouse J:  The Oxford miniature vaporizer .  Anaesthesia 1966;21:498-503.Crossref
Boulton TB, Cole PR:  Anaesthesia in difficult situations .  Anaesthesia 1966;21:268-276, 379-399, 513-545Crossref
1967;22:101-133, 435-464
Prior FN:  Appropriate technology: Anaesthetics .  Br Med J 1984;288:1750-1755.Crossref
US Nonprofit Organizations in Development Assistance Abroad:  TAICH (Technical Assistance Information Clearing House) Directory , ed 8. New York, American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service Inc, 1983.
Cullen SC, Larson CP Jr:  Essentials of Anesthetic Practice . Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers Inc, 1974, p 4.
Britt BA (ed):  Preface , in  Malignant Hyperthermia , International Anesthesiology Clinics. Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1979, vol 17, pp VII-X.
Samuels SI, Wyner J:  An unavoidable death .  Br Med J 1984;228:1198.
Lee JA, Atkinson RS:  A Synopsis of Anesthesia , ed 7. Bristol, England, John Wright & Sons Ltd, 1973, p 772.