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November 2021 - July 1883

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Issue

September 21, 2021, Vol 326, No. 11, Pages 993-1116

In This Issue of JAMA

Audio Highlights

Abstract Full Text
free access online only has audio
JAMA. 2021;326(11):e2018133. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.18133
Original Investigation

Caring for the Critically Ill Patient

Effect of Lower Tidal Volume Ventilation Facilitated by Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal vs Standard Care Ventilation on 90-Day Mortality in Patients With Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure: The REST Randomized Clinical Trial

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1013-1023. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.13374

This randomized clinical trial examines whether lower tidal volume ventilation facilitated by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal, compared with standard care, will decrease mortality 90 days after randomization in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure.

Effect of Probiotics on Incident Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):1024-1033. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.13355

This clinical trial assessed whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG compared with placebo reduces ventilator-associated pneumonia and other clinically important outcomes for a broad range of critically ill patients.

Association Between Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement for Bicuspid vs Tricuspid Aortic Stenosis and Mortality or Stroke Among Patients at Low Surgical Risk

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1034-1044. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.13346

This registry-based cohort study compared rates of mortality and stroke at 30 days and 1 year among patients at low surgical risk with bicuspid vs tricuspid aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Research Letter

Antibody Response After a Third Dose of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in Kidney Transplant Recipients With Minimal Serologic Response to 2 Doses

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):1063-1065. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.12339

This study examines the antibody responses to a third dose (100 μg) of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among kidney transplant recipients in France who had not responded to 2 doses of the vaccine.

Change in Saliva RT-PCR Sensitivity Over the Course of SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):1065-1067. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.13967

This study investigates the timeframe that optimizes saliva sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 detection using reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing.

Special Communication

A Guideline for Reporting Mediation Analyses of Randomized Trials and Observational Studies: The AGReMA Statement

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):1045-1056. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.14075

This Special Communication describes the methods that were used to develop the guideline, provides a long- and short-form checklist to be used when writing research reports, presents brief explanations for each reporting item, and provides guidance on how to use A Guideline for Reporting Mediation Analyses (AGReMA).

Viewpoint

Confronting the Delta Variant of SARS-CoV-2, Summer 2021

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):1001-1002. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.14811

This Viewpoint discusses the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, including its epidemiology, transmissibility, how uneven vaccination coverage in the US encouraged its spread, and the most effective public health responses to curb it.

Potential Implications of SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant Surges for Rural Areas and Hospitals

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):1003-1004. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.13941

This Viewpoint discusses the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 and suggests potential solutions for institutions, governments, and society as they navigate the potentially rural-dominant surge in infections.

The Helping to End Addiction Long-term (HEAL) Initiative of the National Institutes of Health

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):1005-1006. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.13300

This Viewpoint discusses the Helping to End Addiction Long-term initiative of the National Institutes of Health that was launched in 2018 to provide scientific solutions to the evolving crisis of opioid misuse, addiction, and overdose.

A Piece of My Mind

It Is What It Is

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1007-1008. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.14917

In this narrative medicine essay, a critical care physician tells how plans for her sister’s kidney transplant halted last year when the COVID-19 pandemic caused the shutdown of most nonurgent medical care services and hopes the system can develop a better process for patients with chronic diseases.

Editorial

Transcatheter Valve Replacement for Bicuspid Aortic Stenosis

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1009-1010. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.13229

A Reporting Guideline for Mediation Analyses

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1011-1012. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.15462
JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis

Recommendations for Prevention and Management of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1058-1059. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.7458

This JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis summarizes the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s 2020 guideline on the prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in adults.

From The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics

Pitolisant (Wakix) for Narcolepsy

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1060-1061. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.1349

This Medical Letter review summarizes the use of pitolisant, a histamine-3–receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, for treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness or cataplexy in adults with narcolepsy.

Editor's Note

Reporting Findings From Mediation Analyses

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):1057. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.15786
Medical News & Perspectives

Twenty Years After 9/11, Responders Are Still Healing

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):995-998. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.14010

This Medical News article discusses ongoing physical and mental health effects for emergency personnel, recovery and cleanup workers, and volunteers who responded on and after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

News From the Food and Drug Administration

New Treatment Approved for Adults and Children With Pompe Disease

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1000. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.15588

Lupus Drug Is Approved Despite Previous Clinical Trial Setback

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1000. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.14964

“Collaborative Communities” Tackle Device Development Challenges

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1000. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.15589
Global Health

Increase in Myopia Reported Among Children During COVID-19 Lockdown

Abstract Full Text
free access
JAMA. 2021;326(11):999. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.14475

India Takes Aim at Eliminating Visceral Leishmaniasis

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):999. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.15467

US Health System Ranks Last Among High-Income Countries

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):999. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.15468
Poetry and Medicine

Penned

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1074. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.10994
JAMA Revisited

Beethoven’s Deafness

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1075. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.18134
Appendix

MD-Granting Medical Schools in the United States, 2020-2021

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):1077-1087. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.12944

This Appendix presents data from the 2020-2021 Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) annual questionnaire, which provides information on the number of students, student demographics, and curriculum content at US medical schools.

Graduate Medical Education, 2020-2021

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):1088-1110. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.13501

This Appendix presents 2020 National GME Census data detailing the numbers and types of ACGME-accredited training programs and the residents and fellows in them.

JAMA Patient Page

Pulmonary Hypertension

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):1116. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.11054

This JAMA Patient Page describes the 5 different types of pulmonary hypertension and how it is diagnosed and treated.

Comment & Response

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring vs Standard Therapy During Infliximab Induction in Patients With Chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1067. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.11477

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring vs Standard Therapy During Infliximab Induction in Patients With Chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1068-1069. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.11471

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring vs Standard Therapy During Infliximab Induction in Patients With Chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1069. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.11474

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring vs Standard Therapy During Infliximab Induction in Patients With Chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases—Reply

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1069-1070. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.11480

Antimicrobial Therapy and Respiratory Hospitalization or Death in Adults With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1070-1071. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.11810

Antimicrobial Therapy and Respiratory Hospitalization or Death in Adults With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis—Reply

Abstract Full Text
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1071-1072. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.11813
Correction

Incorrect Group Sizes in Figure

Abstract Full Text
free access
JAMA. 2021;326(11):1072. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.14582

Addition of Nonauthor Collaborator Names of the VICTAS Trial

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):1072. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.15080
JAMA Masthead

JAMA

Abstract Full Text
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JAMA. 2021;326(11):993-994. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.18131
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