Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has affected the lives of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals who have access to treatment and continues to narrow the gap in life expectancy between persons with HIV and the general population. Unfortunately, concomitant with this favorable outcome, noninfectious causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD), have had a disproportionately negative affect on ART-treated individuals with HIV, creating a “double jeopardy” phenomenon.
Hadigan C, Paules CI, Fauci AS. Association Between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Cardiovascular Diseases: Finding a Solution to Double Jeopardy. JAMA Cardiol. 2017;2(2):123–124. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.5177
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