What is the association of sex with patient outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention?
In this prespecified subgroup analysis of the GLOBAL LEADERS randomized clinical trial, there was no between-sex difference in the risk of 2-year all-cause mortality or new Q-wave myocardial infarction. The risks of bleeding and hemorrhagic stroke in women were higher than in men, and compared with dual antiplatelet therapy, ticagrelor monotherapy was associated with lower risk of bleeding at 1 year in men but not in women.
The effect of antiplatelet strategy on bleeding at 1 year may be different between the sexes.
Women experience worse ischemic and bleeding outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
To assess the association of sex with patient outcomes at 2 years after contemporary PCI and with the efficacy and safety of 2 antiplatelet strategies.
Design, Setting, and Analysis
This study is a prespecified subgroup analysis of the investigator-initiated, prospective, randomized GLOBAL LEADERS study evaluating 2 strategies of antiplatelet therapy after PCI in an unselected population including 130 secondary/tertiary care hospitals in different countries. The main study enrolled 15 991 unselected patients undergoing PCI between July 2013 and November 2015. Patients had an outpatient clinic visit at 30 days and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the index procedure. Data were analyzed between January 1, 2019, and March 31, 2019.
Eligible patients were randomized to either the experimental or reference antiplatelet strategy. Experimental strategy consisted of 1 month of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) followed by 23 months of ticagrelor monotherapy, while the reference strategy comprised of 12 months of DAPT followed by 12 months of aspirin monotherapy.
Main Outcomes and Measures
The primary efficacy end point was the composite of all-cause mortality and new Q-wave myocardial infarction at 2 years. The secondary safety end point was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3 or 5 bleeding.
Of the 15 968 patients included in this study, 3714 (23.3%) were women. The risk of the primary end point at 2 years was similar between women and men (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.83-1.20). Compared with men, women had higher risk of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 3 or 5 bleeding (adjusted HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04-1.67) and hemorrhagic stroke at 2 years (adjusted HR, 4.76; 95% CI, 1.92-11.81). At 2 years, there was no between-sex difference in the efficacy and safety of the 2 antiplatelet strategies. At 1 year, compared with DAPT, ticagrelor monotherapy was associated with a lower risk of bleeding in men (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53-0.98) but not in women (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.80-1.89; P for interaction = .045).
Conclusions and Relevance
Compared with men, women experienced a higher risk of bleeding and hemorrhagic stroke after PCI. The effect of 2 antiplatelet strategies on death and Q-wave myocardial infarction following PCI did not differ between the sexes at 2 years.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01813435
Chichareon P, Modolo R, Kerkmeijer L, et al. Association of Sex With Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Subgroup Analysis of the GLOBAL LEADERS Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Cardiol. Published online November 06, 2019. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2019.4296
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