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August 17, 2022

Advances in Imaging and Targeted Therapies for Recurrent Pericarditis: A Review

Author Affiliations
  • 1Center for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pericardial Diseases, Section of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Heart, Vascular, and Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio
  • 2Cardiology, Cardiothoracic Department, University Hospital Santa Maria della Misericordia, Udine, Italy
JAMA Cardiol. 2022;7(9):975-985. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2022.2584

Importance  Pericarditis is the most common form of pericardial disease. Recurrence of pericarditis affects 15% to 30% of patients after the initial episode of pericarditis. Up to 50% of patients with the first recurrence have additional recurrences. These patients often progress to have colchicine-resistant and corticosteroid-dependent disease. Rapidly evolving cardiac magnetic resonance imaging techniques and novel targeted therapies have paved the way for imaging-guided therapy for recurrent pericarditis. However, the optimal application of these recent advances remains unclear.

Observations  A search was conducted using the PubMed and Cochrane databases for English-language studies, management guidelines, meta-analyses, and review articles published until April 2022 on recurrent pericarditis. Following the 2015 European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pericardial diseases, new clinical trials and registry data have emerged that demonstrate the efficacy of interleukin-1 blockers in recurrent pericarditis. In addition, new observational data have come to light supporting the use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of such patients.

Conclusions and Relevance  Advances in imaging and targeted therapies have led to a paradigm shift in the management of recurrent pericarditis. This narrative review summarizes the established and emerging data on the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent pericarditis with special emphasis on the role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and interleukin-1 blockers in the current era of tailored therapy for recurrent pericarditis.

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