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JAMA Cardiology Patient Page
May 2016

Wearable Fitness Trackers and Heart Disease

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Copyright 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Applicable FARS/DFARS Restrictions Apply to Government Use.

JAMA Cardiol. 2016;1(2):239. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.0354
What Are Fitness Trackers?

Fitness or activity trackers are devices with special sensors that can monitor your movement. Often referred to as “wearables,” these devices are typically worn around the wrist as a bracelet or embedded in a mobile phone or wristwatch. They can measure footsteps taken, distance traveled, type of movement (walk, run, or jog), and quality and duration of sleep. Some wearables have additional sensors to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen levels, and perspiration. Data from wearables can be transferred to a smartphone, computer, database, or website. Connected smartphones and wearables can alarm or vibrate to encourage behaviors, such as exercise or sleep. As wearable technology matures, these devices will likely cost less, and it may become easier to share data from them with your health care professional, clinic, or hospital.

Can Fitness Trackers Prevent or Treat Heart Disease?

Professional cardiology society guidelines recommend that most patients participate in regular exercise. However, these societies have not yet given recommendations on how fitness trackers should be used because no long-term studies have been completed that have tested whether the use of fitness trackers can help prevent heart disease. Also, the accuracy of most wearables has not been verified in clinical studies. In fact, some devices may provide inaccurate measurements, particularly during intensive exercise.

What Are the Benefits of Using a Fitness Tracker?

Despite these limitations, fitness trackers still may have benefits for you. Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for heart disease. A wearable device can help you set realistic goals at any level of activity or fitness and can help you monitor your progress. Many fitness trackers allow you to review your exercise patterns over the previous weeks and months. By helping you monitor your activity patterns, these devices may encourage regular exercise. Previous studies suggest that fitness trackers increase physical activity and may even promote weight loss. With some devices, websites, or apps, you can even share your exercise progress with your physician or with family members. Therefore, in the right context, a fitness tracker may provide the motivation and tools to maintain an active lifestyle and promote healthy habits.

What Is the Future of Fitness Trackers?

As more patients and clinicians become familiar with fitness trackers, these devices could play a larger role in health care. For example, some electronic health record systems allow you to upload wearable data directly into your medical record. Several health insurance plans even offer incentives to members for achieving activity goals. Like mobile phones, these devices may one day become an integral part of society and health care. Ongoing and future studies will be needed to determine whether they can actually reduce the risk of developing heart disease and its attendant complications.

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Article Information

Published Online: April 13, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2016.0354.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.

Sources: Case MA, Burwick HA, Volpp KG, Patel MS. Accuracy of smartphone applications and wearable devices for tracking physical activity data. JAMA. 2015;313(6):625-626.

Burke LE, Ma J, Azar KM, et al; American Heart Association Publications Committee of the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; Behavior Change Committee of the Council on Cardiometabolic Health; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology; Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research; Stroke Council. Current science on consumer use of mobile health for cardiovascular disease prevention: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;132(12):1157-1213.

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    1 Comment for this article
    Wearable Fitness Trackers must be standarized , must be user-friendly and must be eco-friendly.
    Rajiv Kumar | Professor, Deptt. of Pharmacology Government Medical College & Hospital Chandigarh, India.
    This is good to read an article on 'Wearable Fitness Trackers and Heart Disease '.
    It is essential for a wearable fitness trackers to have a right fit in users, and users should set a goal and remain get motivated during use.
    There may be a risk of radio waves exposure among users also it’s easy to tamper with data collected by wearable fitness trackers, hence health data of users are at risk.
    Although regulatory hurdles are present, there should be enough evidence regarding safety, hence trials are needed in large population to get more data.
    fitness trackers must be standarized, must be user-friendly and must be eco-friendly.


    Dr Rajiv Kumar
    Professor, Deptt. of Pharmacology
    Government Medical College & Hospital
    Chandigarh, 160030, India.