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Figure 1.
Percentage of Prescription of Anticoagulants and Antiplatelets (AP) and Their Combination in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy (ICM) and Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy (NICM) According to CHA2DS2-VASc Score
Percentage of Prescription of Anticoagulants and Antiplatelets (AP) and Their Combination in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy (ICM) and Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy (NICM) According to CHA2DS2-VASc Score

DTI indicates direct thrombin inhibitor; FXA, factor Xa inhibitor; VKA, vitamin K anticoagulation.

Figure 2.
Unadjusted and Adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs) for 1-Year Outcomes
Unadjusted and Adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs) for 1-Year Outcomes

A, Unadjusted and adjusted HRs for clinical outcomes at 1 year. Rates were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, history of bleeding, moderate-to-severe kidney disease, type of medication, type of atrial fibrillation, and heavy alcohol use. B, Adjusted HRs for patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) vs patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) according to antiplatelet (AP) treatment. Rates were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, history of bleeding, moderate-to-severe kidney disease, type of atrial fibrillation, and heavy alcohol use. ACS indicates acute coronary syndrome; CHF, congestive heart failure; SE, systemic embolism.

Table 1.  
Baseline Characteristics of Patients With Ischemic and Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy
Baseline Characteristics of Patients With Ischemic and Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy
Table 2.  
Baseline Treatments (GARFIELD-AF Cohorts 1 to 5) and AF Management at Diagnosis (GARFIELD-AF Cohorts 3 to 5)
Baseline Treatments (GARFIELD-AF Cohorts 1 to 5) and AF Management at Diagnosis (GARFIELD-AF Cohorts 3 to 5)
Table 3.  
Incidence Rates per 100 Person-Years of Clinical Outcomes at 1-Year Follow-up
Incidence Rates per 100 Person-Years of Clinical Outcomes at 1-Year Follow-up
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Patel  RB, Vaduganathan  M, Shah  SJ, Butler  J.  Atrial fibrillation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: insights into mechanisms and therapeutics.  Pharmacol Ther. 2017;176:32-39. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2016.10.019PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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Original Investigation
May 8, 2019

Analysis of Outcomes in Ischemic vs Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Report From the GARFIELD-AF Registry

Author Affiliations
  • 1Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Catholic University School of Medicine, Santiago, Chile
  • 2University of Besançon, Besançon, France
  • 3Thrombosis Research Institute, London, England
  • 4University of Perugia School of Medicine, Perugia, Italy
  • 5St George’s University of London, London, England
  • 6Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, England
  • 7Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, Scotland
  • 8Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 9Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 10Formerly at Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
  • 11Center for Public Health Research, University of Milan Bicocca, Monza, Italy
  • 12Bayer AG Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany
  • 13Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina
  • 14McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 15Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  • 16University College London, London, United Kingdom
JAMA Cardiol. 2019;4(6):526-548. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2018.4729
Key Points

Question  What are the management strategies and outcomes of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and concomitant congestive heart failure (ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy)?

Findings  In this cohort study of a registry that included 52 014 patients, patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy were less likely to receive oral anticoagulants with or without antiplatelet drugs and more likely to receive antiplatelet drugs alone than patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and had a worse outcome in terms of all-cause and cardiovascular death.

Meaning  There is a need for physicians to opt for improved adherence to guidelines-directed treatment of both atrial fibrillation and concomitant congestive heart failure, particularly in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

Abstract

Importance  Congestive heart failure (CHF) is commonly associated with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF), and their combination may affect treatment strategies and outcomes.

Objective  To assess the treatment strategies and 1-year clinical outcomes of antithrombotic and CHF therapies for patients with newly diagnosed AF with concomitant CHF stratified by etiology (ischemic cardiomyopathy [ICM] vs nonischemic cardiomyopathy [NICM]).

Design, Setting, and Participants  The GARFIELD-AF registry is a prospective, noninterventional registry. A total of 52 014 patients with AF were enrolled between March 2010 and August 2016. A total of 11 738 patients 18 years and older with newly diagnosed AF (≤6 weeks’ duration) and at least 1 investigator-determined stroke risk factor were included. Data were analyzed from December 2017 to September 2018.

Exposures  One-year follow-up rates of death, stroke/systemic embolism, and major bleeding were assessed.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Event rates per 100 person-years were estimated from the Poisson model and Cox hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals.

Results  The median age of the population was 71.0 years, 22 987 of 52 013 were women (44.2%) and 31 958 of 52 014 were white (61.4%). Of 11 738 patients with CHF, 4717 (40.2%) had ICM and 7021 (59.8%) had NICM. Prescription of oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs was not balanced between groups. Oral anticoagulants with or without antiplatelet drugs were used in 2753 patients with ICM (60.1%) and 5082 patients with NICM (73.7%). Antiplatelets were prescribed alone in 1576 patients with ICM (34.4%) and 1071 patients with NICM (15.5%). Compared with patients with NICM, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (72.6% [3439] vs 60.3% [4236]) and of β blockers (63.3% [2988] vs 53.2% [3737]) was higher in patients with ICM. Rates of all-cause and cardiovascular death per 100 patient-years were significantly higher in the ICM group (all-cause death: ICM, 10.2; 95% CI, 9.2-11.1; NICM, 7.0; 95% CI, 6.4-7.6; cardiovascular death: ICM, 5.1; 95% CI, 4.5-5.9; NICM, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.5-3.4). Stroke/systemic embolism rates tended to be higher in ICM groups compared with NICM groups (ICM, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.6-2.5; NICM, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9). Major bleeding rates were significantly higher in the ICM group (1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4) compared with the NICM group (0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9).

Conclusions and Relevance  Patients with ICM received oral anticoagulants with or without antiplatelet drugs less frequently and antiplatelets alone more frequently than patients with NICM, but they received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers more often than patients with NICM. All-cause and cardiovascular death rates were higher in patients with ICM than patients with NICM.

Trial Registration  ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01090362

Introduction

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is commonly associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), and their combined presentation confers a worse prognosis than either condition alone.1 Treatment of both conditions implies use of specific drugs for CHF plus antithrombotic agents for stroke prevention. In addition, management strategies and outcomes may be affected by the etiology of CHF, namely ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) or nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) because the prescription of antithrombotic therapies might be different and could affect prognosis in terms of death, stroke/systemic embolism (SE), and bleeding.2,3 The aim of our study was to assess the treatment strategies in terms of antithrombotic and CHF therapies and 1-year clinical outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed AF and concomitant CHF stratified by etiology (ICM vs NICM) enrolled in the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the Field–Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF) registry.

Methods

The design of the GARFIELD-AF registry was reported previously.4,5 Briefly, men and women 18 years and older with AF diagnosed according to standard local procedures within the previous 6 weeks and with at least 1 nonprespecified risk factor for stroke as judged by the local investigator and no valvular disease were eligible for inclusion.5 Patients were enrolled prospectively and consecutively in 35 countries. When random site selection did not generate the required number of sites in a given country, the national lead investigator was asked to recommend sites to make up the numbers (18 of 1317 sites). The sites represent the different care settings in each participating country (office-based practice; hospital departments, including neurology, cardiology, geriatrics, internal medicine, and emergency; anticoagulation clinics; and general or family practice).4,5 Except for Egypt and South Africa, there were no other participant countries from Africa.

Independent ethics committee and hospital-based institutional review board approvals were obtained. The registry is being conducted in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, local regulatory requirements, and the International Conference on Harmonization–Good Pharmacoepidemiological and Clinical Practice guidelines. Written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Confidentiality and anonymity of all patients recruited into this registry are maintained.

Procedures and Outcome Measures

Baseline characteristics collected at inclusion in the registry included medical history, care setting, type of AF, date and method of diagnosis, symptoms, antithrombotic treatment (ie, vitamin K antagonists, nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, and antiplatelets [AP]), and all cardiovascular drugs. Race/ethnicity was classified by the investigator in agreement with the patient.5 Data on components of the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED risk stratification schemes were collected. The HAS-BLED scores were calculated excluding fluctuations in international normalized ratio.

Collection of follow-up data was performed every 4 months up to 12 months.4,5 Standardized definitions for clinical events have been reported previously.4,5 In brief, baseline characteristics and treatments and the incidences of death (cardiovascular and noncardiovascular), stroke/SE, and bleeding were recorded. Submitted data were examined for completeness and accuracy by the coordinating center (Thrombosis Research Institute, London, England), and data queries were sent to study sites. The GARFIELD-AF data are captured using an electronic case report form. In accordance with the study protocol, 20% of all electronic case report forms were monitored against source documentation.6 Data for the analysis in this report were extracted from the study database on October 18, 2017.

Definitions

Heart failure was defined as current/prior history of CHF or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of less than 40%. Congestive heart failure was diagnosed according to clinical criteria at entry and classified according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class. Information about LVEF assessed by 2-dimensional echocardiography was available in 73% of patients with CHF and was stratified as preserved LVEF when this was 40% or higher and as reduced LVEF when less than 40%. Ischemic cardiomyopathy was defined as patients with a history of coronary artery disease, including known chronic angina pectoris, previous myocardial infarction or unstable angina, coronary artery bypass grafting, or previous percutaneous coronary intervention with or without stenting. Nonischemic cardiomyopathy was the default diagnosis. Worsening HF was defined as progressive or acute decompensation of previously stable CHF. Vascular disease included coronary artery disease with a history of acute coronary syndromes and/or peripheral artery disease. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was classified according to National Kidney Foundation guidelines into moderate-to-severe (stages 3-5), mild (stages 1 and 2), or none.

Statistical Analysis

Continuous variables were expressed as medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) and categorical variables as frequencies and percentages. Because studies with large sample sizes are prone to producing statistically significant findings in the presence of clinically irrelevant differences, no formal statistical tests are performed for the baseline tables. Instead, clinical interpretations are applied, and statistical tests are reserved for hypotheses of differences in outcomes.

All cohorts of patients had been followed up for a minimum of 1 year. Thus, events and time to events are censored at 365 days. Occurrence of major clinical outcomes was expressed as person-time event rates (per 100 person-years) and 95% confidence intervals. Person-year rates for the first occurrence of the event of interest were estimated using a Poisson model, with the number of events as the dependent variable and the log of time as an offset, ie, a covariate with a known coefficient of 1.

Evaluation of 1-year outcomes by patients with ischemic vs nonischemic HF were performed both as unadjusted and adjusted analyses using Cox proportional hazards models. In addition to the unadjusted person-time event rates, the hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals are provided for both unadjusted and adjusted results. Adjustment factors, as determined in previous models of the key outcomes, were age with spline knots at 48, 65, 79, and 88 years; sex; race/ethnicity; smoking status; diabetes; hypertension; history of bleeding; moderate-to-severe CKD; use of oral anticoagulation therapy (OAC) at baseline; type of AF; and heavy use of alcohol.

The association of type of HF with outcomes in patients who used AP therapy was also of interest. The inclusion of the main effect of AP alone vs AP therapy plus OAC and the interaction of ischemic vs NICM by AP alone vs AP plus OAC was evaluated in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. The adjustment factors included those listed previously, except OAC use, which appears in the treatment of interest. The test for interaction specifies whether the association between patients with ICM and NICM varies according to treatment received. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals of the difference outcomes for patients with ICM vs NICM within each of the 2 treatment strategies are derived from this model. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS, version 9.4 (SAS Institute), while forest plots were created using SigmaPlot, version 12.5 (Microsoft). The log-rank test was used to compare the survival distribution rates between ICM and NICM groups. A P value of less than .05 was considered statistically significant.

Results
Baseline Characteristics

The population of this study included all 5 cohorts of the GARFIELD-AF registry (eFigure 1 in the Supplement), totaling 52 014 patients recruited between March 2010 and August 2016 and followed up prospectively for a minimum of 1 year. Detailed baseline characteristics of the population are reported in eTable 1 in the Supplement. The median age of the population was 71.0 years, and 22 987 of 52 013 (44.2%) were women. Concomitant CHF was present in 11 738 of 52 007 patients (22.5%), coronary artery disease in 11 232 of 52 007 (21.6%), and history of hypertension in 38 585 of 51 863 (73.4%). Prior stroke/transient ischemic attack was present in 5954 of 52 007 patients (11.4%), history of bleeding in 1317 (2.5%), diabetes in 11 540 (22.2%), and moderate-to-severe CKD in 5373 (11.7%). At enrollment, 4717 patients (9.1%) had ICM and 7021 (13.5%) had NICM (eTable 1 in the Supplement).

Compared with patients with NICM, patients with ICM were more frequently white (74.5% [3465 of 4651] vs 55.8% [3848 of 6897]) and less frequently non-Chinese Asian (12.8% [596] vs 29.5% [2035]), had a higher mean body weight (80.7 kg vs 77.2 kg), had a similar mean LVEF (45.9% vs 46.9%), had a higher rate of depressed LVEF (32.4% [1170 of 3606] vs 37.8% [1892 of 5005]), were less likely to have permanent or persistent AF (30.4% [1434 of 4717] vs 37.3% [2619 of 7021]), and more frequently had NYHA class III/IV CHF (37.0% [1468 of 3964] vs 28.8% [1589 of 5533]). In addition, compared with patients with NICM, patients with ICM were more likely to have carotid occlusive disease (4.3% [199 of 4608] vs 2.4% [169 of 6932]), history of stroke/transient ischemic attack (12.6% [596 of 4717] vs 9.7% [684 of 7021]), hypertension (84.6% [3985 of 4710] vs 73.1% [5121 of 7004]), hypercholesterolemia (55.7% [2530 of 4545] vs 34.0% [2303 of 6782]), type 2 diabetes (28.3% [1335 of 4717] vs 20.2% [1415 of 7021]), and moderate-to-severe CKD (16.2% [764 of 4717] vs 13.7% [960 of 7020]), had a higher mean CHA2DS2-VASc score (4.4 vs 3.8), and were treated more frequently in cardiology (74.5% [3514 of 4717] vs 68.5% [4812 of 7021]) (Table 1).

Antithrombotic Therapies

Oral anticoagulants alone or in combination with AP were prescribed in fewer patients with ICM than patients with NICM (alone: ICM, 31.5% [1443 of 4579]; NICM, 61.2% [4225 of 6898]; combined: ICM, 60.1% [2753 of 4579]; NICM, 73.7% [5082 of 6898]). Patients with ICM were more likely to receive AP alone than patients with NICM (34.4% [1576 of 4579] vs 15.5% [1071 of 6898]). Dual AP therapy was given in 580 of 4681 patients with ICM (12.4%) and in 103 of 6961 with NICM (1.5%). No antithrombotic drugs were prescribed in 250 of 4579 patients with ICM (5.5%) and 745 of 6898 with NICM (10.8%) (Table 2). The prescription patterns were remarkably similar across the various categories of risk of stroke as defined by CHA2DS2-VASc score (0-1, 2-4, and >4), with OAC with or without AP rates approximately 60% in patients with ICM vs 70% in patients with NICM and AP only rates approximately 30% in patients with ICM vs 15% in patients with NICM (Figure 1). The prescription patterns were also mostly similar in cardiology, internal medicine, and primary care settings; the rates of AC with or without AP were approximately 60% for patients with ICM and 74% for patients with NICM, and rates of AP were approximately 35% and 15%, respectively. There were too few patients in neurology and geriatrics settings to have a reliable picture of the prescription patterns (eFigure 2 in the Supplement). Lastly, in emergency departments, hospitals, and office settings, rates of AC with or without AP were approximately 60% in patients with ICM and 70% in patients with NICM, and rates of AP were approximately 30% and 15%, respectively. In anticoagulation clinics, most patients received AC with or without AP, primarily in the form of vitamin K antagonists (eFigure 3 in the Supplement).

Treatment of AF

Complete information about treatment and drug therapies of AF were available for the last 3 cohorts of 34 854 patients (Table 2), of whom 3332 had ICM and 4459 had NICM. Rate control was attempted more frequently than rhythm control in both groups. The uptake of antiarrhythmic drugs was mostly similar in both groups, except that class 3 drugs were more frequently used in patients with ICM. Cardioversion was attempted in a minority of patients, at a similar rate in both groups. Patients with NICM were more likely to receive electric cardioversion than patients with ICM.

HF Drugs

The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers was higher in patients with ICM vs patients with NICM (72.9% [3439 of 4717] vs 60.3% [4236 of 7021]). The same was observed for β-blocker use (63.3% [2988 of 4717] vs 53.2% [3737 of 7021], respectively). The use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, loop diuretics, and digoxin and other digitalis was similar between the 2 groups (Table 2).

Clinical Outcomes at 1-Year Follow-up

Incidence rates per 100 person-years of all-cause and cardiovascular death were significantly higher in patients with ICM compared with NICM (all-cause death: ICM, 10.2; 95% CI, 9.2-11.1; NICM, 7.0; 95% CI, 6.4-7.6; P <.001; cardiovascular death: ICM, 5.1; 95% CI, 4.5-5.9; NICM, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.5-3.4; P <.001) (Table 3 and Figure 2A). Rates of noncardiovascular death were similar in both cardiomyopathy groups.

Incidence rates of stroke/SE tended to be higher in the ICM group (2.0; 95% CI, 1.6-2.5) compared with the NICM group (1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9). Incidence rates of major bleeding were significantly higher in the ICM group than in the NICM group. New acute coronary syndromes occurred at a significantly higher rate in the ICM group (1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.3) compared with the NICM group (0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0). Worsening CHF occurred at similar rates in both ICM and NICM groups.

The most frequent classified causes of cardiovascular death were CHF, unwitnessed/sudden death, and myocardial infarction, which tended to be balanced in the 2 CHF groups. The causes of deaths classified as noncardiovascular were also balanced between the ICM and NICM groups and were mostly linked to malignancy, respiratory failure, and infection/sepsis. Nevertheless, there was some imbalance in the rates of other and undetermined causes of death between the 2 groups; in particular, the rate of undetermined cause of death was substantially higher in ICM group (eTable 2 in the Supplement).

AP Therapy and 1-Year Clinical Outcomes

The adjusted hazard ratios for ICM vs NICM in patients who received AP therapy and in patients who did not receive AP therapy at enrollment are presented for mortality, stroke/SE, and major bleeding in Figure 2B. Ischemic cardiomyopathy was significantly associated with higher rates of all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and major bleeding in patients who did not receive AP therapy at enrollment. No such excess of risk in ICM vs NICM was observed among patients who received AP therapy.

Discussion

The main findings of this study are that patients with ICM and patients with NICM and concomitant AF substantially differ in terms of baseline characteristics, functional impairment, LV function impairment, and treatments that may be significantly associated with outcomes. They also significantly differ in terms of outcome, with higher rates of death, major bleeding, and new acute coronary syndromes. The known causes of cardiovascular death were proportionally mostly similar in both groups, including death from ischemic stroke (eTable 2 in the Supplement).

In patients without AF, a higher risk of death in patients with ICM compared with patients with NICM was inconsistently reported in observational studies, in retrospective analyses of hospital records, and in reviews of randomized clinical trials.7-13 The discrepancies between reports were thought to be associated with inconsistency in diagnosing ischemic CHF in the absence of rigorous discriminant definitions of ischemic and nonischemic CHF, with patient selection, or with imbalance in baseline characteristics, with more severe comorbidities in ischemic vs nonischemic CHF.10 The poorer prognosis of ICM was attributed to differences in structural alterations between the 2 entities, with more regional wall motion abnormalities, asynchrony of LV contraction, extensive scar tissue, and poorer LV compliance in addition to a greater extent of coronary artery disease and residual ischemia in ICM vs NICM.14

A limited number of reports addressed the outcome of patients with CHF and concomitant AF. They showed that concomitant AF was associated with a higher risk of death in ICM only.2,3 Atrial fibrillation in patients with ischemic heart disease may contribute to impaired myocardial perfusion, coronary vasoconstriction, and further deterioration of diastolic function. In addition, impaired myocardial perfusion is associated with electrical instability and a higher risk of sudden death.15,16

In this report, patients with ICM had more advanced deterioration of their cardiac condition, as shown by a higher NYHA functional class, a higher rate of depressed LV function (about two-thirds of patients with CHF had preserved LVEF, but patients with ICM had higher rates of reduced LVEF), and higher rates of comorbidities, particularly coronary artery disease and CKD, which might have contributed to a worse prognosis. Treatment strategy of AF and use of antiarrhythmic drugs were mostly similar in both groups, but there was some imbalance between the 2 groups regarding rate or rhythm control and use of class 3 antiarrhythmic drugs. Antithrombotic therapy was suboptimal in the ICM group compared with the NICM group, as shown by a much lower rate of anticoagulation with or without AP therapy and, consequently, a high rate of AP alone prescription even in patients without indication for AP therapy, as already reported17 (Table 2). This may have had a detrimental effect on the risk of death because anticoagulation was shown to be associated with a substantial reduction of the risk of death in previous reports.18,19 In the Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health Registry (REACH) trial,20 where the incidence of AF in patients with coronary artery disease was 12.5%, it was shown that only 53% of these patients were given anticoagulation therapy whereas 40% were receiving AP agents alone. Additionally, there were higher rates of heart failure and cardiovascular death in the AF population than in the non-AF population.

The reasons for inadequate antithrombotic treatment in the ICM group remain to be determined. These patients, often elderly, need treatments for stroke prevention, heart failure, and coronary disease, resulting in an extensive list of drugs, which may deter the physician from prescribing them all and deter the patient from complying with the prescription.21 Physicians’ adherence to guideline recommendations remains a matter of debate.22,23 In a previous report of the GARFIELD registry,19 physicians’ decision was the most common reason for not prescribing OACs in patients with AF. Lack of adherence may have played a role because the implementation of guidelines was shown to have a favorable association with outcomes in other settings.24,25 In this context, an intriguing fact needs to be mentioned. In patients who did not receive AP therapy, the risks of all-cause and cardiovascular death as well as the risk of major bleeding were significantly higher in those with ICM than in those with NICM; in contrast, in patients who did receive AP therapy, there was no excess of events in those with ICM (Figure 2B). This tends to confirm that AP therapy is associated with a more positive outcome in patients with ischemic heart disease. However, these data were generated from a nonprespecified subgroup analysis. As such, no firm conclusions can be derived, and these data are only hypothesis generating.

There was a substantial but not significant excess of stroke/SE and a significant excess of major bleeding risks in patients with ICM compared with patients with NICM (Table 3 and Figure 2A). Congestive heart failure without AF is associated with a higher risk of stroke, and the combination of CHF and AF further increases this risk irrespective of LV function (preserved or depressed) or of etiology (ischemic or nonischemic).26-28 A higher mean CHA2DS2-VASc score and a higher incidence of carotid artery disease in the ICM group may also explain the excess of stroke/SE. Furthermore, as already mentioned, stroke prophylaxis was suboptimal in the ICM group, where twice as many patients received AP therapy alone compared with the NICM group. In addition, prescribing rates of OAC alone or in combination with AP therapy were substantially lower in patients with ICM than in those with NICM (Table 2). These prescription patterns were observed irrespective of CHA2DS2-VASc score, medical specialty, and care setting. Combination therapy is known to increase the risk of bleeding,29,30 and AP therapy alone does not confer any protection against stroke/SE but increases bleeding risk.31,32 This may explain the higher risk of major bleeding in patients with ICM in this study.

Finally, to our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the outcomes of ICM and NICM in patients with AF from an unselected prospective registry population representative of real life. Ischemic cardiomyopathy carried a poorer prognosis than NICM in terms of all-cause and cardiovascular death. It was also associated with a substantial but not significant excess of stroke/SE and significantly higher risk of bleeding. In addition, patients with ICM were suboptimally treated with regards to stroke prophylaxis, which may have affected outcomes. Polypharmacy and/or poor adherence to guideline-recommended therapies may explain the inadequacy of treatment in ischemic CHF.

Limitations

Our study had limitations. Ischemic cardiomyopathy was not defined by the investigator but retrospectively based on the history of coronary artery disease (ie, known chronic angina pectoris, previous myocardial infarction or unstable angina, coronary artery bypass grafting, or previous percutaneous coronary intervention with or without stenting), low LVEF, and signs/symptoms of CHF. Nevertheless, we cannot rule out that some patients in the NICM group had ischemic heart disease. The population included in this analysis is mostly made of white and Asian individuals, so the results may not be relevant for other racial/ethnic groups.

Conclusions

More than 22% of the population of patients with newly diagnosed AF included in the GARFIELD-AF registry had concomitant CHF, of whom around 40% had ICM. They were suboptimally given anticoagulation therapy and more often received AP therapy alone or in combination with anticoagulants. These patients had worse outcomes than patients with NICM in terms of all-cause and cardiovascular death despite the fact that they were more likely to receive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers than patients with NICM. These findings should prompt physicians to opt for active treatment of both AF and CHF, particularly in patients with ICM.

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Article Information

Accepted for Publication: December 7, 2018.

Corresponding Author: Ramon Corbalan, MD, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Catholic University School of Medicine, Marcoleta 367, Santiago 8330024, Chile (corbalan@med.puc.cl).

Published Online: May 8, 2019. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2018.4729

Author Contributions: Dr Pieper had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Study concept and design: Corbalan, Bassand, Ambrosio, Camm, Fox, Goldhaber, Haas, Mantovani, Misselwitz, Turpie, Verheugt, Kakkar.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Illingworth, Ambrosio, Camm, Fitzmaurice, Goto, Kayani, Mantovani, Pieper, Turpie.

Drafting of the manuscript: Corbalan, Bassand, Goldhaber, Verheugt.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Illingworth, Ambrosio, Camm, Fitzmaurice, Fox, Goldhaber, Goto, Haas, Kayani, Mantovani, Misselwitz, Pieper, Turpie, Kakkar.

Statistical analysis: Illingworth, Goldhaber, Mantovani, Pieper.

Obtained funding: Goto, Misselwitz, Kakkar.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Fitzmaurice, Goldhaber, Goto, Turpie, Kakkar.

Study supervision: Corbalan, Bassand, Camm, Fitzmaurice, Goldhaber, Haas, Kayani, Mantovani, Misselwitz, Verheugt, Kakkar.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Camm has received grants and personal fees from Bayer and Boehringer Ingelheim as well as personal fees from Daiichi Sankyo and Pfizer/Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dr Fox has received grants and personal fees from Bayer/Janssen Pharmaceutica, grants from AstraZeneca, and personal fees from Sanofi/Regeneron and Verseon. Dr Goldhaber has received research support from BiO2 Medical, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, BTG EKOS Corporation, Daiichi Sankyo, Janssen Pharmaceutica, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the Thrombosis Research Institute and has consulted for Agile Medical, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, Janssen Pharmaceutica, Portola Pharmaceuticals, and Soleno Therapeutics. Dr Goto has received grants from Bristol-Myers Squibb, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology/Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Ono Pharmaceutical, Sanofi, and Pfizer. Dr Haas has received personal fees from Aspen Medical Products, Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, Portola Pharmaceuticals, and Sanofi. Dr Kayani has received grants from Bayer. Dr Mantovani has received grants and personal fees from Bayer and Boehringer Ingelheim, grants from Daiichi Sankyo, and personal fees from Pfizer. Dr Misselwitz is employed by and owns stock in Bayer. Dr Turpie has received personal fees from Bayer and the Thrombosis Research Institute. Dr Kakkar has received grants and personal fees from Bayer as well as personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi Sankyo, Janssen Pharmaceutica, Sanofi, and Verseon. No other disclosures were reported.

Funding/Support: This work was supported by an unrestricted research grant from Bayer AG, Berlin, Germany, to Thrombosis Research Institute, London, United Kingdom, which sponsors the GARFIELD-AF registry.

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Group Information: The GARFIELD-AF Investigators are: Global Steering Committee: University College London, London, United Kingdom: Ajay K. Kakkar; Chair; University of Besançon, Besançon, France: Jean-Pierre Bassand; St George’s University of London, London, United Kingdom: A. John Camm; University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom: David A. Fitzmaurice; Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts: Samuel Z. Goldhaber; Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan: Shinya Goto; Formerly Haemostasis and Thrombosis Research Group, Institute for Experimental Oncology and Therapy Research, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany: Sylvia Haas; University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany: Werner Hacke; University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy: Lorenzo G. Mantovani; Bayer AG, Berlin, Germany: Frank Misselwitz; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, US: Karen S. Pieper; McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: Alexander G. G. Turpie; Bayer AG, Berlin, Germany: Martin van Eickels; Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Freek W. A. Verheugt. Publications Committee: St George’s University of London, London, United Kingdom: A. John Camm, Chair; University of Besançon, Besançon, France: Jean-Pierre Bassand; Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, US; Samuel Z. Goldhaber; Formerly Haemostasis and Thrombosis Research Group, Institute for Experimental Oncology and Therapy Research, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany: Sylvia Haas; Thrombosis Research Institute, United Kingdom: Gloria Kayani; University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy: Lorenzo G. Mantovani. Audit Committee: University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom: Keith A. A. Fox; (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, US: Bernard J. Gersh. GARFIELD-AF National Coordinators: Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucuman, Tucuman, Argentina: Hector Lucas Luciardi; The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Harry Gibbs; Medizinische Universität Graz Klinische Abteilung für Angiologie, Graz, Austria: Marianne Brodmann; AZ KLINA, Cardiology, Brasschaat, Belgium: Frank Cools; Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Antonio Carlos Pereira Barretto; McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: Stuart J. Connolly; McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: John Eikelboom; Pontificia, Universidad Catolica, Santiago, Chile: Ramon Corbalan; National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China: Zhi-Cheng Jing; University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic: Petr Jansky; Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Denmark: Jørn Dalsgaard Nielsen; National Heart Institute, Cairo, Egypt: Hany Ragy; Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland: Pekka Raatikainen; Georges Pompidou Hospital, Paris, France: Jean-Yves Le Heuzey; Vivantes Neukoelln Medical Center, Berlin, Germany: Harald Darius; Hungarian Institute of Cardiology, Budapest, Hungary: Matyas Keltai; Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Delhi, India: Jitendra Pal Singh Sawhney; University of Perugia School of Medicine, Perugia, Italy: Giancarlo Agnelli; University of Perugia School of Medicine, Perugia, Italy: Giuseppe Ambrosio; Osaka National Hospital, Osaka, Japan: Yukihiro Koretsune; Instituto de Cardiologia y Medicina Vascular, TecSalud, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico: Carlos Jerjes Sánchez Díaz; Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands: Hugo Ten Cate; Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway: Dan Atar; Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland: Janina Stepinska; Atherothrombosis Clinical Problems Laboratory, Cardiology Research and Production Center, Moscow, Russia: Elizaveta Panchenko; National University Heart Centre, Singapore: Toon Wei Lim; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa: Barry Jacobson; University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea: Seil Oh; Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain: Xavier Viñolas; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden: Marten Rosenqvist; University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland: Jan Steffel; Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand: Pantep Angchaisuksiri; Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey: Ali Oto; National Scientific Center, MD Strazhesko Institute of Cardiology, Kiev, Ukraine: Alex Parkhomenko; Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: Wael Al Mahmeed; University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom: David Fitzmaurice; Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, US: Samuel Z. Goldhaber.

GARFIELD-AF National Investigators:

China

Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing: Yihong Sun, Dayi Hu, Lei Li, and Wenling Liu; Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China: Kangning Chen and Hong Zhai; Beijing 301 Hospital, Beijing, China: Yusheng Zhao and Ran Zhang; The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, China: Huaiqin Zhang and Xiao Chen; The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China: Tingting Liu, Jiyan Chen, Wang, and Xiaosheng Hu; Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China: Qiong Zhan, Shiping Cao, Jingshan Yang, and Xingfu Huang; Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong Science and Technology University, Wuhan, China: Ting Yu and Daowen Wang; Fuwai Hospital, Beijing, China: Qian Zhang, Yuejin Yang, Zhicheng Jing, Xiaoliang Luo, and Xiaojin Gao; The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, China: Weihua Li and Wuyang Zheng; Daqing Oilfield General Hospital, Daqing, China: Yanhong Li, Hui Li, and Hongying Yu; The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China: Yuehui Yin, Xianbin Lan, and Bei Zhou; The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou, China: Ge Tian, Guizhou Tao, and Xiaojing Shi; China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China: Ping Yang and Bing Li; Renji Hospital Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China: Yingmin Chen; Northern Jiangsu People’s Hospital, Yangzhou, China: Shenghu He and Yi Zhang; China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China: Yong Wang and Jing Li; Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Hangzhou, China: Yang Ye, Guosheng Fu, and Xia Sheng; Jinzhou Central Hospital, Jinzhou, China: Xin Li; Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital, Guangzhou, China: Jin Chen and Tongguo Wu; The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China: Xiaoshu Cheng, Juxiang Li, and Jianhua Yu; Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China: Ruiyi Xu and Xiaowei Yan; Baotou Central Hospital, Baotou, China: Ruiping Zhao, Yangyang Liu, and Rina Wu; Haikou City People’s Hospital, Haikou, China: Tianyi Ma, Yixue Zhang, Moshui Chen, Zhihong Zhou, and Xiaoai He; The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China: Li Wang, Chuanfang Cheng, Longgen Xiong, and Zhicheng Lu; Shantou Central Hospital, Shantou, China: Ping Chen and Ying Wang; The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China: Yang Jiao and Xinyi Zhu; Hunan Province People’s Hospital, Changsha, China: Qinghua Fu, Qin Yang, Na Li, Ying Guo, Jianqiang Peng, and Qiong Xie; General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, China: Weina Guo, Ruhua He, Li Xue, and Guoshan Zhang; and Second Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China: Shuai Feng, Lingli Yang, Zhiming Yang, and Chunlin Bai.

India

Sujata Birla Hospital & Medical Research Centre, Nashik, India: Priyanka Dhakrao and Praveen Jadhav; Lalitha Super Speciality Hospital, Guntur, India: Raghava Sarma and Naga Malleswara Rao; Shree Multispecialty Hospital, Pune, India: Unnati Joshi and Bhakti Deshpande and Shankar G Panse and Anjali Sable and Govind Kulkarni and Amol Lawande; Heart and General Hospital, Jaipur, India: Prakash Chandwani and Mahendra Sharma; Shree Krishna Hospital & Heart Care Centre, Ahmedabad, India: Dhrumi Shah and Nehal Sadhu and Rasesh Atulbhai Pothiwala and Pratik Dwivedi; West Fort Hi-Tech Hospital Pvt. Ltd., Thrissur, India: Mohanan Padinhare Purayil and Divin Davies and Manoj Earath; Sterling Hospital, Ahmedabad, India: Shrenik Shah; Sterling Hospital, Vadodara, India: Amish Ganatra and Kamaldeep Chawla and Khyati Patel; K.L.E. Society's Dr Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum, India: James Kot and Veerappa Annasaheb Kothiwale and Kinjal Shah and Vineeta Dhyani; Chinmaya Narayana Institute of Neuroscience, Bangalore, India: Sudheer Garapati and Bagirath Raghuraman and Ayyappa N and Subramani Krishnappa; Vijan Cardiac and Critical Care, Nashik, India: Vinod Madan Vijan and Mahesh Dargude; Sir Gangaram Hospital, New Delhi, India: Jitendra Sawhney and Somya Duhan; St John's Medical College Hospital, Bangalore, India: Ganapathi Bantwal and Sudha Suresh; Crescent Hospital & Heart Centre, Nagpur, India: Puja sherke and Satish Giradkar and Aziz Khan and Kajal Gaikwad and Reshma Kohade and Alka Gedam; S. R. Kalla Memorial Gastro & General Hospital, Jaipur, India: Ramdhan Meena and Jugal Gupta and Vipin Jain; Chopda Medicare & Research Centre, Nashik, India: Bhushan Suryawanshi and Priyanka More and Manoj Chopada and Anand Rokade; Chinmaya Narayana super speciality hospital, Bangalore, India: Rajendran Karthikeyan and Anusha Kotha and Sunitha Abraham; Bisne’s Heart Institute, Nagpur, India: Bhowari Jamunkar and Neha Madarkar and Vikas Bisne and Darshana Nandekar and Ruchieta Kishty; Kerala Institute of Medical Sciences, Trivandrum, India: Govindan Vijayaraghavan and Kavitha VC; Rabindranath Tagore International Institute of Cardiac Sciences (RTIICS), Vishakhapatnam, India: Partha Bhattacharjee and Debabrata Roy and Anjuli Barai; Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, India: Latheef Kasala and Vanaja Vanajakshamma and Rajashekhar Durgaprasad; Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, Mysore, India: Rahul ER and Kanuri Prashanth and Prasad Shiva and A.G. Ravi Shankar and Dilip Teja Naidu; Apollo BGS Hospital, Mysore, India: Dilipa Naik and Manasa Rao and Sunil Kumar; Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India: Sukhjeet Kaur and Dinesh Jain; Medanta The Medicity, Gurgaon, India: Dhriti Adak and Krishan Sharma and Kartikeya Bhargava and Kuldeep Chauhan; Vikram Hospital & Heart Care, Mysore, India: Devina Igoor and Manjappa M and Vinushree K and Rathna RL and Vinay Kumar and Haseena Begum and Vaibhavi PS and Bharath Kumar; M. S. Ramaiah Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore, India: Dayakar P and Sanjana Xavier and Swathi Balaraju and VIJAY Kumar and Udigala Madappa Nagamalesh and Beena Lokesh; Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Delhi, India: Swati Sharma and Rajeeve Kumar Rajput and Huma Yusuf and Swati Singhal.

Japan

NHO Osaka National Hospital, Osaka-shi, Japan: Yukihiro Koretsune; Kanamorikai Kanamori Clinic, Uto-shi, Japan: Seishu Kanamori; Keiaikai Saga Memorial Hospital, Saga-shi, Japan: Kenichi Yamamoto; Kohokai Fukuoka Sanno Hospital, Fukuoka-shi, Japan: Koichiro Kumagai; Fukuoka City Medical Association Hospital, Kitakyushu-shi, Japan: Yosuke Katsuda; Sagaken Medical Center Koseikan, Saga-shi, Japan: Keiki Yoshida; Fukuokairyodan Chidoribashi Hospital, Fukuoka-shi, Japan: Fumitoshi Toyota; Juryokai Kumamoto Kino Hospital, Kumamoto-shi, Japan: Yuji Mizuno; NHO Kumamoto Saishunso National Hospital, Koshi-shi, Japan: Ikuo Misumi; Chiyukai Fukuoka Wajiro Hospital, Fukuoka-shi, Japan: Hiroo Noguchi; Fukuokaken Saiseikai Futsukaichi Hospital, Chikushino-shi, Japan: Shinichi Ando; Yukeikai Suetsugu Naika Junkankika, Kanoya-shi, Japan: Tetsuro Suetsugu; JCHO Kanazawa Hospital, Kanazawa-shi, Japan: Masahiro Minamoto; Public Central Hospital of Matto Ishikawa, Hakusan-shi, Japan: Hiroyuki Oda; Shuwakai Shuwa General Hospital, Kasukabe-shi, Japan: Susumu Adachi; Hoyukai Chitose Hoyukai Hospital, Chitose-shi, Japan: Kei Chiba; Yuaikai Oda Regional Medical Center, Kashima-shi, Japan: Hiroaki Norita; Tsuruta Naika Junkankika Clinic, Saga-shi, Japan: Makoto Tsuruta; Koyanagi Naika Junkankika Clinic, Tosu-shi, Japan: Takeshi Koyanagi; Yamamoto Heart Clinic, Kurume-shi, Japan: Kunihiko Yamamoto; Ando Naika Junkankika Clinic, Fukuoka-shi, Japan: Hiroshi Ando; Ryubokai Higashi Diabetes and Cardiovascular Clinic, Tamana-shi, Japan: Takayuki Higashi; Seikeikai Okada Hospital, Nagato-shi, Japan: Megumi Okada; Kenshinkai Azakami Naika Junkankika Clinic, Nogata-shi, Japan: Shiro Azakami; Kokoronohi Komaki Clinic, Aira-shi, Japan: Shinichiro Komaki; Eikokai Kumeda Naika Junkankinaika Clinic, Kagoshima-shi, Japan: Kenshi Kumeda; Murayama Naika Junkankika Clinic, Kagoshima-shi, Japan: Takashi Murayama; Shunseikai Higuchi Hospital, Kasuga-shi, Japan: Jun Matsumura; KKR Chihaya Hospital, Fukuoka-shi, Japan: Yurika Oba; Chishinkai Nishimura Naika Noshinkeigeka Hospital, Kumamoto-shi, Japan: Ryuji Sonoda; Hibikikai Goto Naika Clinic, Kumamoto-shi, Japan: Kazuo Goto; Minoda Naika Junkankika, Hitoyoshi-shi, Japan: Kotaro Minoda; Haraguchikai Haraguchi Junkankika Naika Clinic, Kumamoto-shi, Japan: Yoshikuni Haraguchi; Toeikai Suefuji Naika Junkankika, Kumamoto-shi, Japan: Hisakazu Suefuji; Miyagi Junkanki Naika, Yatsushiro-shi, Japan: Hiroo Miyagi; Jinseikai Kato Clinic, Osaka-shi, Japan: Hitoshi Kato; Nakamura Medical and Circuratory Clinic, Kitakyushu-shi, Japan: Tsugihiro Nakamura; Nakamura Tadashi Naika Junkankika Clinic, Kitakyushu-shi, Japan: Tadashi Nakamura; Nandate Naika Junkankika, Kitakyushu-shi, Japan: Hidekazu Nandate; Zaitsu Cardiovascular Clinic, Fukuoka-shi, Japan: Ryuji Zaitsu; Fukuoka Teishin Hospital, Fukuoka-shi, Japan: Yoshihisa Fujiura; Hyodokai Yoshimura Naika, Nagato-shi, Japan: Akira Yoshimura; Numata Naika Kokyukika, Fujisawa-shi, Japan: Hiroyuki Numata; Handa Naika Clinic, Kanazawa-shi, Japan: Jun Ogawa; Tatematsu Clinic, Nagoya-shi, Japan: Hiroshi Tatematsu; Taikai Clinic, Satsumasendai-shi, Japan: Yasuyuki Kamogawa; Murakami Kinshiro Cardiovascular Internal Clinic, Sasebo-shi, Japan: Kinshiro Murakami; Wakasa Medical Clinic, Kanazawa-shi, Japan: Yutaka Wakasa; Yamasawa Naika, Koriyama-shi, Japan: Masanori Yamasawa; Maekawa Medical Clinic, Yokohama-shi, Japan: Hiromitsu Maekawa; Kokankai Kokan Clinic, Kawasaki-shi, Japan: Sumihisa Abe; Kikokai Kihara Cardiovascular Internal Medicine Clinic, Asahikawa-shi, Japan: Hajime Kihara; Close To You Est Clinic, Hirosaki-shi, Japan: Satoru Tsunoda; Seiwakai Nishiarai Heart Center Hospital, Adachi-ku, Japan: Katsumi Saito; Tachibana-Iiyama Hospital, Kagoshima-shi, Japan: Hiroki Tachibana; Showakai Imakiire General Hospital, Kagoshima-shi, Japan: Ichiro Oba; Yushikai Kuwahata Clinic, Kagoshima-shi, Japan: Takashi Kuwahata; Hakuaikai Makiminato Central Hospital, Urasoe-shi, Japan: Satoshi Higa; Doshinkai Gushiken Junkanki Naika, Urasoe-shi, Japan: Masamichi Gushiken; Eto Clinic, Nichinan-shi, Japan: Takuma Eto; Shonankai Shonan Hospital, Okinawa-shi, Japan: Hidetoshi Chibana; Fujisawa Clinic, Itoshima-shi, Japan: Kazuaki Fujisawa; Seishinkai Inoue Hospital, Itoshima-shi, Japan: Yuhei Shiga; Sumi Junkankinaika Clinic, Oita-shi, Japan: Hirokuni Sumi; Chojukai Nagatomo Naika Junkankinaika Clinic, Kitakyushu-shi, Japan: Toshihisa Nagatomo; Tenyokai Chuo Clinic, Kagoshima-shi, Japan: Yoshihiko Atsuchi; Nagoshi Naika, Miyazaki-shi, Japan: Toshiro Nagoshi; Ojukai Sanno Naika, Aira-shi, Japan: Kazuhisa Sanno; Karinkai Murakamikarindoh Hospital, Fukuoka-shi, Japan: Fumihiro Hoshino; Yokota Naika, Miyazaki-shi, Japan: Naoto Yokota; Kanoya Medical Center Citizens' Health Plaza, Kanoya-shi, Japan: Masahiro Kameko; Tabuchi Naika Junkankika, Kikuchi-gun, Japan: Toshifumi Tabuchi; Ishizawa Junkankinaika, Ebino-shi, Japan: Munesumi Ishizawa; Hojunkai Fujiura Junkankinaika Clinic, Nichinan-shi, Japan: Yoshitake Fujiura; Seijinkai Ikeda Hospital, Kanoya-shi, Japan: Daisuke Ikeda; Seto Junkankinaika Clinic, Fukuoka-shi, Japan: Taku Seto; Oita Red Cross Hospital, Oita-shi, Japan: Tetsu Iwao; Kieikai Fukuoka Kieikai Hospital, Fukuoka-shi, Japan: Norio Ishioka; Omotokai Ohama Daiichi Hospital, Naha-shi, Japan: Koichi Oshiro; Tsuchida Clinic of Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine, Nagaoka-shi, Japan: Keizo Tsuchida; Hatori Clinic, Kawasaki-shi, Japan: Yutaka Hatori; Takeuchi Clinic, Kobe-shi, Japan: Motoshi Takeuchi; Takezawa Clinic (Nagoya), Nagoya-shi, Japan: Hiroto Takezawa; Jiaikai Imamura General Hospital, Kagoshima-shi, Japan: Shinjiro Nagano; Matsushirokai Hayato Spa Hospital, Kirishima-shi, Japan: Masaaki Iwaki; Nakamura Cardiovascular Clinic, Itoshima-shi, Japan: Yuichiro Nakamura; Sanyukai Saino Clinic, Tokorozawa-shi, Japan: Naomasa Miyamoto; Taguchi Junkankikanaika Clinic, Miyakonojo-shi, Japan: Toshifumi Taguchi; Ashida Medical Clinic, Tamba-shi, Japan: Ko Ashida; Yoshizawa Heart Clinic, Setagaya-ku, Japan: Naoto Yoshizawa; Agata Clinic, Obihiro-shi, Japan: Jun Agata; Matsukawa Heart Clinic, Edogawa-ku, Japan: Seishiro Matsukawa; Yuaikai Tomishiro Chuo Hospital, Tomigusuku-shi, Japan: Osamu Arasaki and Tetsuji Shinjo; Fukuoka Clinic, Nichinan-shi, Japan: Shuji Fukuoka; South Tokyo Heart Clinic, Machida-shi, Japan: Hirofumi Murakami; Mishima Naika Clinic, Kitamorokata-gun, Japan: Kazuya Mishima; Naha City Hospital, Naha-shi, Japan: Mamoru Manita; Kenshinkai Minamino Cardiovascular Hospital, Hachioji-shi, Japan: Yoshiki Hata; Caress Sapporo Hokko Memorial Clinic, Sapporo-shi, Japan: Ichiro Sakuma; Tokyobay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu-shi, Japan: Kotaro Obunai; Takamura Naika Iin, Otaru-shi, Japan: Ichiro Takamura; Akutsu Naika Iin, Otaru-shi, Japan: Mitsuyuki Akutsu; Unoki Junkankinaika Iin, Miyakonojo-shi, Japan: Toshihide Unoki; Kochikukai Go Neurosurgical Clinic, Chikushi-gun, Japan: Yoshinori Go; Shinseikai Ikemura Internal Medicine Clinic, Miyakojima-shi, Japan: Makoto Ikemura; Miike Junkankika Naika Iin, Kusu-gun, Japan: Shoji Morii; Tokachi Heart Clinic, Kato-gun, Japan: Shigeru Marusaki; Doi Naika Junkankika, Miyazaki-shi, Japan: Hideo, Doi; Tanaka Junkankinaika Clinic, Kobayashi-shi, Japan: Mitsuru Tanaka; Kotokukai Kusumoto Naika Iin, Izumi-shi, Japan: Takaaki Kusumoto; Otaru Kyokai Hospital, Otaru-shi, Japan: Shigeo Kakinoki; Ogurusu Heart Clinic, Kasaoka-shi, Japan: Chiga Ogurusu; Wayokai Murata Clinic, Sanyoonoda-shi, Japan: Kazuya Murata; Shimoyama Clinic, Yonago-shi, Japan: Masaki Shimoyama; Jisshokai Nakatsuka Naika, Hofu-shi, Japan: Masami Nakatsuka; Asakurashinryojo Asakura Clinic, Imabari-shi, Japan: Yutaka Kitami; Soyokaze Cardiovascular Medicine and Diabetes Care, Matsuyama-shi, Japan: Yoichi Nakamura; Shogen Naika Clinic, Sendai-shi, Japan: Hiroshi Oda; Tojukai Ito Naika Iin, Shimonoseki-shi, Japan: Rikimaru Oyama; Ageta Naika Clinic, Nichinan-shi, Japan: Masato Ageta; Mita Medical-Cardiovascular Clinic, Sapporo-shi, Japan: Teruaki Mita; Nagao Naika Junkanki Clinic, Sapporo-shi, Japan: Kazuhiko Nagao; Mito Naika Junkanki Clinic, Sapporo-shi, Japan: Takafumi Mito; Saito Naika Clinic, Hakodate-shi, Japan: Tsutomu Saito; Juntenkai Teshima Clinic, Kure-shi, Japan: Junichi Minami; Yotsuba Circulation Clinic, Matsuyama-shi, Japan: Mitsunori Abe; Fujii Heart Clinic, Kurashiki-shi, Japan: Masako Fujii; Okawa Naika, Kochi-shi, Japan: Makoto Okawa; Kawaguchi Heart Clinic, Kawaguchi-shi, Japan: Tsuneo Fujito; Aishin Clinic, Yachiyo-shi, Japan: Toshiya Taniguchi; Gyokushinkai Kashima Heart Clinic, Kamisu-shi, Japan: Tenei Ko; Hakushinkai Hiro Clinic, Takasaki-shi, Japan: Hiroshi Kubo; Chiba Heart Clinic, Chiba-shi, Japan: Mizuho Imamaki; Heart Clinic, Tatebayashi-shi, Japan: Masahiro Akiyama; Ueda Heart Clinic, Tatsuno-shi, Japan: Takashi Ueda; Dobashi Naika Iin, Sendai-shi, Japan: Hironori Odakura; Inagaki Clinic, Itami-shi, Japan: Masahiko Inagaki; Katsube Clinic, Nishinomiya-shi, Japan: Yoshiki Katsube; Nakata Naika Clinic, Nishinomiya-shi, Japan: Atsuyuki, Nakata; Tojo Clinic, Kato-shi, Japan: Shinobu Tomimoto; Juzenkai Tateyama Junkankinaika Geka, Tateyama-shi, Japan: Mitsuhiro Shibuya; Kaiseikai Nakano Hospital, Shibukawa-shi, Japan: Masayuki Nakano; Ito Cardiovascular Clinic, Saiki-shi, Japan: Kenichiro Ito; Matsuta Heart Clinic, Yamatokoriyama-shi, Japan: Masahiro Matsuta; Yi Yuan Hui Ishiguro Clinic, Gifu-shi, Japan: Motoyuki Ishiguro; Minagawa Clinic, Gifu-shi, Japan: Taro Minagawa; Wada Clinic (Gunma), Tomioka-shi, Japan: Masamichi Wada; Mukawa Heart Clinic, Ogaki-shi, Japan: Hiroaki Mukawa; Mizuguchi Clinic, Suzuka-shi, Japan: Masato Mizuguchi; Kosumosukai Okuda Clinic, Ube-shi, Japan: Fumio Okuda; Meihokai Meiho Clinic, Tsuruga-shi, Japan: Teruaki Kimura; Keiyukai Taga Naika Junkankika Iin, Fukui-shi, Japan: Kuniaki Taga; Techigawara Clinic, Koriyama-shi, Japan: Masaaki Techigawara; Asunarokai Igarashi Clinic, Shirakawa-shi, Japan: Morio Igarashi; HAL Clinic, Niigata-shi, Japan: Hiroshi Watanabe; Seo Naika Clinic, Osaka-shi, Japan: Toshihiko Seo; Hiramitsu Heart Clinic, Nagoya-shi, Japan: Shinya Hiramitsu; Yuaikai Higashi Junkanki Clinic, Toyohashi-shi, Japan: Hiroaki Hosokawa; Hoshiai Clinic, Owariasahi-shi, Japan: Mitsumoto Hoshiai; Hibino Naika Clinic, Toyota-shi, Japan: Michitaka Hibino; Miyagawa Clinic, Nisshin-shi, Japan: Koichi Miyagawa; Heart Naika Clinic, Yatomi-shi, Japan: Hideki Horie; Wakeikai Sugishita Iin, Gujo-shi, Japan: Nobuyoshi Sugishita; Meisei Shiga Clinic, Obu-shi, Japan: Yukio Shiga; Heart Clinic Kokoro, Koka-shi, Japan: Akira Soma; Neya Naika Clinic, Itabashi-ku, Japan: Kazuo Neya; Onga Hospital, Onga-gun, Japan: Tetsuro Yoshida; Akahane Clinic, Nagano-shi, Japan: Kunio Akahane; Shofukai Naito Hospital, Kurume-shi, Japan: Sen Adachi; Takanaka Clinic, Hamamatsu-shi, Japan: Chiei Takanaka; Ueda Neurosurgery, Miyazaki-shi, Japan: Takashi Ueda; Matsui Clinic, Hamamatsu-shi, Japan: Saori Matsui; Heart Clinic Kanda, Okazaki-shi, Japan: Hirofumi Kanda; Kaneko Naika Junkankika Clinic, Hamamatsu-shi, Japan: Masanori Kaneko; Nagasaka Heart Clinic, Hamamatsu-shi, Japan: Shiro Nagasaka; Taguchi Naika Junkankika Iin, Hamamatsu-shi, Japan: Atsushi Taguchi; Nitobe Memorial Nakano General Hospital, Nakano-ku, Japan: Shuta Toru and Kazuyuki Saito and Akiko Miyashita and Hiroki Sasaguri; Osaka General Hospital of West Japan Railway Company, Osaka-shi, Japan: Jin Nariyama and Hiroyuki Miyamoto and Yusuke Nishida and Tatsuya Suga and Hiroki Nagata; Hatsuno Clinic, Iruma-gun, Japan: Taketo Hatsuno; Iwase Internal Medicine Cardiology Clinic, Shibuya-ku, Japan: Takash Iwase; Itsukikai Heart Clinic, Katsushika-ku, Japan: Kazuki Sato; Chikamorikai Chikamori Hospital, Kochi-shi, Japan: Kazuya Kawai; Jinikai Makita General Hospital, Ota-ku, Japan: Tomobumi Kotani; Tsuji Clinic, Toyonaka-shi, Japan: Tsuyoshi Tsuji; Sakai Medical Clinic, Higashiosaka-shi, Japan: Hirosumi Sakai; Nishino Clinic, Kochi-shi, Japan: Kiyoshi Nishino; Tachikawa IM Clinic, Tachikawa-shi, Japan: Kenichi Ikeda; Maeda Naika Iin, Niigata-shi, Japan: Kazuo Maeda; Murao Shinryojo, Neyagawa-shi, Japan: Tomohiro Shinozuka; Inoue Cardiovascular Clinic, Oita-shi, Japan: Takeshi Inoue; Kawakami Clinic, Ota-shi, Japan: Koichi Kawakami; Kitazumi Clinic, Itabashi-ku, Japan: Hiromichi Kitazumi; Takagi Cardiology Clinic, Kyoto-shi, Japan: Tsutomu Takagi; Hamaoka Clinic, Nishinomiya-shi, Japan: Mamoru Hamaoka; Kojima Clinic, Odawara-shi, Japan: Jisho Kojima; Sasaki Heart Clinic, Shizuoka-shi, Japan: Akitoshi Sasaki; Ohashi Cardiovascular & Internal Medicine Clinic, Fukuoka-shi, Japan: Yoshihiro Tsuchiya; Tokyo Tenshi Hospital, Hachioji-shi, Japan: Tetsuo Betsuyaku; Hiratsuka Kyosai Hospital, Hiratsuka-shi, Japan: Koji Higuchi; Honda Clinic, Izumo-shi, Japan: Masaaki Honda; Hasegawa Outpatients Clinic for Cardiovascular Disease, Takamatsu-shi, Japan: Koichi Hasegawa; Baba Clinic, Nishitokyo-shi, Japan: Takao Baba; Mineoi Clinic, Matsuyama-shi, Japan: Kazuaki Mineoi; Saien Cardiovascular Medicine Clinic, Morioka-shi, Japan: Toshihiko Koeda; Hirasawa Cardiovascular Medicine Clinic, Asahikawa-shi, Japan: Kunihiko Hirasawa; Sunomata Clinic, Ogaki-shi, Japan: Toshihide Kumazaki; Nakagomi Medical Clinic, Akita-shi, Japan: Akira Nakagomi; Otaki Cardiology Clinic, Bunkyo-ku, Japan: Eiji Otaki; Shindo Clinic, Amagasaki-shi, Japan: Takashi Shindo; Chiyo Clinic, Kitakyushu-shi, Japan: Hiroyoshi Hirayama; Toyoda Heart Clinic, Iwata-shi, Japan: Chikako Sugimoto; Yamagishi Medical Clinic, Yamaguchi-shi, Japan: Takashi Yamagishi; Orange Clinic, Yokohama-shi, Japan: Ichiro Mizuguchi; Nico Nico Heart Clinic, Higashimatsuyama-shi, Japan: Kazunori Sezaki; Niwa Medical Clinic, Kyoto-shi, Japan: Isamu Niwa; Takenaka Clinic, Kyoto-shi, Japan: Ken Takenaka; Nakatani Clinic, Yao-shi, Japan: Osamu Iiji; Taya Clinic, Tsuchiura-shi, Japan: Koichi Taya; Tachikawa General Hospital, Nagaoka-shi, Japan: Hitoshi Kitazawa; Okinawa Tokushukai Chiba Tokushukai Hospital, Funabashi-shi, Japan: Osamu Ueda; Kakuda Clinic, Kahoku-shi, Japan: Hirokazu Kakuda; Ono Medical Clinic, Koto-ku, Japan: Takuya Ono; Oriso Internal Medicine Cardiology Clinic, Ninohe-shi, Japan: Seizo Oriso; Odori Kamata Medicine Clinic, Morioka-shi, Japan: Junya Kamata; Gakuen Heart Clinic, Machida-shi, Japan: Toshihiko Nanke; Miyanomori Memorial Hospital, Sapporo-shi, Japan: Itaru Maeda and Takashi Kawamoto; Sakaemachi Clinic, Tottori-shi, Japan: Yoshifusa Matsuura; JR Hiroshima Hospital, Hiroshima-shi, Japan: Hiroki Teragawa and Yuichi Fujii and Shuichi Nomura and Tomohiro Ueda; Kosekai Iwatsuki-minami Hospital, Saitama-shi, Japan: Yasuyuki Maruyama; Takei Medical Clinic, Odawara-shi, Japan: Kazuo Takei; Horie Clinic, Omihachiman-shi, Japan: Hajime Horie; Clinic Kakehashi, Nagoya-shi, Japan: Tetsutaro Kito; Asuka Clinic, Nakano-ku, Japan: Hiroshi Asano; Matsushita Medical Clinic, Toyonaka-shi, Japan: Koji Matsushita; Nakamura Medical Clinic, Suita-shi, Japan: Masaichi Nakamura; Washizuka Clinic, Kamo-shi, Japan: Takashi Washizuka; Yoshida Heart Clinic, Hiroshima-shi, Japan: Tomoki Yoshida; Sawano Clinic, Yokohama-shi, Japan: Masato Sawano and Koji Matsushita; Arima Shinichi Clinic, Kagoshima-shi, Japan: Shinichi Arima; Kanoya Heart Center, Kanoya-shi, Japan: Hidekazu Arai; Iwamoto Medical Clinic, Zentsuji-shi, Japan: Hisanori Shinohara; Takai Clinic, Kawachinagano-shi, Japan: Hiroyuki Takai; Furukawa Medical Clinic, Nakatsu-shi, Japan: Nobufusa Furukawa; Ota Shinryojo, Awa-shi, Japan: Akira Ota; Yamamoto Naika, Sakai-shi, Japan: Kentaro Yamamoto; Ebetsu City Hospital, Ebetsu-shi, Japan: Kenji Aoki and Masahiko Abe and Rikiya Shinohe; Yamamoto Clinic (Shiga), Moriyama-shi, Japan: Taku Yamamoto; Kasai Naika Junkanki Clinic, Nerima-ku, Japan: Takeaki Kasai; Suzuki Medical Clinic, Minamiawaji-shi, Japan: Shunji Suzuki; KKR Tohoku Kosai Hospital, Sendai-shi, Japan: Kikuyo Takahashi and Shu Suzuki; Sakakibarakosekai Shinjuku Mitsui Building Clinic, Shinjuku-ku, Japan: Nitaro Shibata; Omori Internal Medicine Cardiology Clinic, Fukushima-shi, Japan: Masayuki Watanabe St Luke's International Hospital, Chuo-ku, Japan: Hiroyuki Niinuma and Yasuhiro Yokoyama and Hirotsugu Mitsuhashi and Ryo Nakazato and Takeaki Shirai and Yumi Shiina and Atsushi Mizuno and Toru Adachi and Taku Asano and Ikki Komatsu and Masahiro Yamazoe and Yosuke Nishihata and Yosuke Nishihata and Yutaro Nishi; Yamaichi Building Medical Clinic, Adachi-ku, Japan: Toru Arino; Okuyama Clinic, Murayama-shi, Japan: Masaki Okuyama; Wakiyama Clinic, Karatsu-shi, Japan: Tetsushi Wakiyama; Juntendo University Hospital, Bunkyo-ku, Japan: Tomoko, Kato; Sasagawa Clinic, Shibata-shi, Japan: Yasuo Sasagawa; Shuri Jokamachi Clinic Daiichi, Naha-shi, Japan: Takeshi Tana and Ayano Ishihara; Internal Medicine Cardiology Hayashi Clinic, Asahikawa-shi, Japan: Yoshihito Hayashi; Ueki Hospital, Kumamoto-shi, Japan: Shinichi Hirota; Abe Clinic, Fukushima-shi, Japan: Yukihiko Abe; Hidamari no Mori Clinic, Japan: Yoshihiro Saito; Uchiyama Clinic, Japan: Hirohide Uchiyama; Takeda Heart Clinic, Japan: Hiroshi Takeda; Sakanoue Family Clinic, Japan: Hiroshi Ono; Hoden Clinic, Japan: Shuichi Tohyo; Clinic Hanazono Naika Iin, Japan: Naoto Hanazono; Miyajima Junkanki Naika, Japan: Seiichi Miyajima; Shimono Clinic, Japan: Hisashi Shimono; Koseikai Kizawa Memorial Hospital, Japan: Takuma Aoyama and Shusaku Miyata Shigekiyo Takahashi and Takahisa Ido and Makoto Yamaura and Keita Suzuki and Yuto Kumai and Gen Tanabe and Takehiro Yamada and Yuka Kawada; Shozawa Clinic, Japan: Yasunobu Shozawa; Kanetsu Chuo Hospital, Japan: Yawara Niijima; Sekishinkai Kawasaki Saiwai Hospital, Japan: Osamu Murai; Sekishinkai Kawasaki Saiwai Clinic, Japan: Osamu Murai; Teikyo University School of Medicine University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Japan: Hideko Inaba; Nomura Medical Clinic, Japan: Katsumasa Nomura; Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Japan: Masatsugu Nozoe; Kenkokan Suzuki Clinic, Japan: Kazuo Suzuki; St Marianna University School of Medicine Hospital, Japan: Toshiyuki Furukawa; Shiraiwa Medical Clinic, Japan: Toshihiko Shiraiwa; Grace Medical Clinic, Japan: Nobuhisa Ito; Nagai Clinic, Japan: Shunichi Nagai; Sendai Ekihigashi Clinic, Japan: Kiyoharu Sato; Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Japan: Shiro Nakahara; Risshokoseikai Kosei General Hospital, Japan: Yujin Shimoyama; Kojinkai Tsuruhashi Clinic, Japan: Naoko Ohara; Omotecho Family Clinic, Japan: Teruhiko Kozuka; Okita Internal Medicine Clinic, Japan: Hideaki Okita; Endo Clinic (Miyagi), Japan: Masato Endo; Goto Iin, Japan: Tsutomu Goto; Hirose Clinic, Japan: Makoto Hirose; Harada Naika Clinic, Japan: Emiko Nagata; Kogakai Nakanishi Clinic, Japan: Noriyuki Nakanishi; Mori Clinic (Osaka), Japan: Toshizumi Mori; Seki Iin, Japan: Shuichi Seki; Okamoto Naika Iin, Japan: Katsuhiro Okamoto; Moriai Naika Clinic, Japan: Osamu Moriai; Emura Clinic, Japan: Yoko Emura; Fukuda Clinic (Tondabayashi), Japan: Tsuyoshi Fukuda; Date Clinic, Japan: Haruhiko Date; Meikikai Uchimura Kawakami Naika, Japan: Shuichi Kawakami; Ebino Sentoro Clinic, Japan: Sho Nagai; Ueyama Clinic, Japan: Yuya Ueyama; Fudo Clinic, Osaka-shi, Japan: Tetsuro Fudo; Ichikawa Iin, Japan: Mitsuru Imaizumi; Ogawa Naika Clinic, Japan: Takuo Ogawa; Hakujinkai Take Naika Clinic, Japan: Shunsuke Take; Ikeda Naika Hifuka Clinic, Japan: Hideo Ikeda; Nishioka Family Clinic, Japan: Hiroaki Nishioka; Ebisu Clinic, Japan: Norihiko Sakamoto; Ikeoka Clinic, Japan: Kiyomitsu Ikeoka; Wakaki Clinic, Japan: Nobuo Wakaki; Abe Junkanki Clinic, Japan: Masatake Abe; Kazahaya Clinic, Japan: Junji Doiuchi; Kira Cardiovascular Clinic, Japan: Tetsuya Kira; Tada Naika (Hakodate), Japan: Masato Tada; Eiseikai Tsuzaki Cardiovascular Anesthesiology Clinic, Japan: Ken Tsuzaki; Miura Clinic (Sapporo), Japan: Naoya Miura; Fujisawa Cardio-Vascular Clinic, Japan: Yasuaki Fujisawa; Furumoto Clinic, Japan: Wataru Furumoto; Rumoi Central Clinic, Japan: Susumu Suzuki; Honbetsu Cardiovascular Medicine Clinic, Japan: Akinori Fujisawa; Nakamurakai Nakamura Clinic, Japan: Ryosai Nakamura; Soseikai Komatsu Iin, Japan: Hiroyasu Komatsu; Seiwakai Fujiki Clinic, Japan: Rei Fujiki; Keiwakai Kawano Iin, Japan: Shuichi Kawano; Nishizawa Clinic, Japan: Keijiro Nishizawa; Kato Medical Clinic, Japan: Yoji Kato; Tsurugaoka Azuma Clinic, Japan: Junya Azuma; Koseikai Yotsubashi Clinic, Japan: Kiyoshi Yasui; Amano Naika, Japan: Toshio Amano; Yuwakai Sekine Iin, Japan, Yasuhiro Sekine; Honzawa Medical Center, Japan: Tatsuo Honzawa; Koshibu Clinic, Japan: Yuichiro Koshibu; SYU Cardiovascular Clinic, Japan: Yasuhide Sakamoto; Seta Clinic, Japan: Yukihiro Seta; Miyaguchi Clinic, Japan: Shingo Miyaguchi; Morishita Naika Iin, Japan: Kojuro Morishita; Yoshikawa Medical Clinic, Japan: Yasuko Samejima; Ishizawa Iin, Japan: Toyoshi Sasaki; Iseki Junkanki Naika, Japan: Fumiko Iseki; Clinica de Kobayashi, Japan: Toshiyuki Kobayashi; Kano Clinic, Japan: Hiroshi Kano; Akiyama Heart Clinic, Japan: Jaeyoung Kim; Hiroshi Yamaguchi Clinic, Japan: Hiroshi Yamaguchi; Takagi Naika Junkankika, Japan: Yoichi Takagi; Galatea Pearce Clinic, Japan: Yoko Onuki Pearce; Medical Clinic Suzuki, Japan: Yasuyuki Suzuki; Fukui Clinic, Japan: Takayuki Fukui; Nakayama Clinic (Kochi), Japan: Toru Nakayama; Kanai Clinic, Japan: Hideaki Kanai; Tenshindo Hetsugi Hospital, Japan: Yoshiyuki Kawano; Souseikai Fukuoka Mirai Hospital, Japan: Tetsuji Ino; Miyoshi Junkanki Clinic, Japan: Hironori Miyoshi; Jonan Koen Clinic, Japan: Yasufumi Miyamoto; Shigekiyo Naika Geka, Japan: Masahito Shigekiyo; Marugame Ono Clinic, Japan: Shimato Ono; Tenshindo Hetsugi Clinic, Japan: Yoshiyuki Kawano; Okamoto Iin, Japan: Yutaka Okamoto; Nijumarukai Ubukata Heart Clinic, Japan: Satoshi Ubukata; Juzenkai Kisarazu Heart Clinic, Japan: Kojiro Kodera; Shinseikai Oriuchi Clinic, Japan: Tatsuo Oriuchi; Sanikai Tsurukawa Kinen Hospital, Japan: Naoki Matsumoto; Inagaki Heart Clinic, Japan: Koichi Inagaki; Iseki Clinic, Japan: Atsushi Iseki; Yoshida Clinic Internal & Cardiology, Japan: Tomohiro Yoshida; Aishinkan Aishin Circulatory Organ Clinic, Japan: Toshihiro Goda; Katsuki Naika Clinic, Japan: Tsukasa Katsuki; Sato Naika Shonika Toriage Iin, Japan: Atsushi Sato; Chihaya Heart Clinic, Japan: Etsuo Mori; Tsubokura Clinic, Japan: Toshio Tsubokura; Hiro Clinic, Japan: Hiroshi Shudo; Hakuyokai Fujimoto Clinic, Japan: Shunichi Fujimoto; Katsuya Clinic, Japan: Tomohiro Katsuya; Furukawa Naika Clinic, Japan: Yoshiyuki Furukawa; Ichibangai Sogo Clinic, Japan: Hiroshi Hosokawa; Narumiyakai Narumiya Heart Clinic, Japan: Jun Narumi; Shozankai Yamamoto Naika Junkankika Iin, Japan: Kiichiro Yamamoto; Owari Cardiovascular & Diabetes Clinic, Japan: Masaki Owari; Keiaikai Inakura Clinic, Japan: Takuya Inakura; Anno Clinic, Japan: Takafumi Anno; Shirakawa Clinic, Japan: Kazuyuki Shirakawa.

Singapore

National Heart Centre, Singapore: Chi Keong Ching and Sandra Thng; National University Hospital, Singapore: Toon Wei Lim; Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore: Haiyan Li and David Foo; Changi General Hospital- Parent, Singapore: Siew Yoon Yap and Dan Dan Chen and Geraldine Lim and Colin Yeo; Singapore General Hospital- Parent, Singapore: Tan Yuyang and Fazlur Rehman Jaufeerally.

South Korea

Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea: Seil Oh and JiHyun Sim and HyunJu Yu; SEVERANCE HOSPITAL, YONSEI UNIVERSITY, Seoul, South Korea: Hui Nam Park and Mi Suk Lee; Kyung Hee University Hospital, South Korea: Woo-Shik Kim and Eunjung Hwang; Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, South Korea: HyeYoung Lee and Sun-joo Kim; The Catholic University of Korea, St Paul's Hospital, Seoul, South Korea: Sung-Won Jang and JiSuk Kwon; Inha University Hospital, Incheon, South Korea: Dae Hyeok Kim and Kyung Mi Yoo; Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, South Korea: Sang Eun Lee and Jeongsu Kim; Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon, South Korea: DongRyeol Ryu and KyoungOk Her and Eun Hee Choi; Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, South Korea: Jaemin Shim and Young Ran Jeon and Gyeong Hui Lee and Woo Jin Chi; Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, South Korea: Dae-Kyeong Kim and Sun Min Lee and Yang-I Kim; Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si, South Korea: Dong Ju Choi and Eun Hee Lee and Hee Kyung Choi and Woo Yeon Lee and EunJi Yoon; The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, Seoul, South Korea: Yong Seog Oh and Yun Suk Son and Sae Rom Jeon; Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, South Korea: Myeong-Chan Cho and Chung Suk Lee; Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea: Sang Hyun Kim and Sang Hee Kim and EuMi Jang; Pharmacy of The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu St Mary's Hospital, Uijeongbu, South Korea: Hui-Kyung Jeon And Gyeong Hui Lee and Ki Tae Kim; Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea: Dong-Gu Shin and EuMi Jang and Kyung Hui Yim Hyewon Medical Foundation SeJong General Hospital, Bucheon-si, South Korea: Jin Sik Park and Jae Seok Park and Jung Joo Ahn; VHS Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea: Hoon Ki Park and Hee Suk Choi; Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang-si, South Korea: Sang-Jin Han and Nari Ryu; CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam-Si, South Korea: Jung Hoon Sung and JiSun Kang; Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, South Korea: Jeong-Gwan Cho and JiSeon Kim and Haeim Kim; Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea: Gi-Byoung Nam and Sulhee Lee and Keun Hye Lee; Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea: Young Keun On and Sehyun Kim; Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, South Korea: Hong Euy Lim and SeongWook Hwang; Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea: JaeJin Kwak and Hyeji Bae HyeYoung Kye; Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Busan, South Korea: Tae-Joon Cha and Eun A Choi and In Kyoung Noh; Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, South Korea: Taek Jong Hong and Ro Woon Lee and Kyeonghwa Hyun; Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, South Korea: Seong Hoon Park and Mi-Young Lee; Yonsei University Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Kangwon-do, South Korea: Jung Han Yoon and Jung Ja Woo and Hye-suk Jang and Sunhui Han and AReum Park and Won Sook Son and Hae Jung An; Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan-si, South Korea: Nam-Ho Kim and Hae Kyeong Jeong and Ae Lee Baek; Daegu Catholic University Medical Center, Daegu, South Korea: Kee-Sik Kim and Mi Sun Kim and JuHee Kim; Daegu Fatima Hospital, Deagu, South Korea: Byung Chun Jung; Ajou University Hospital, Suwon-si, South Korea: Gyo-Seung Hwang and Doo Lae Lee and Young Mi Sohn; Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, South Korea: Chong-Jin Kim and Hye-Young Lee; Inha University Hospital, Incheon, South Korea: Yeon Ji Kim.

Thailand

Burirum Hospital, Muang, Thailand: Riam Inphontan and Pimolwan Phunpinyosak and Sakda Rungaramsin; Central Chest Institute of Thailand, Muang, Thailand: Piyanuch Sukklad and Peerapat Katekangplu; Inburi Hospital, Inburi, Thailand: Porames Khunrong; Lampang Hospital, Muang, Thailand: Suree Yawila and Thanita Bunyapipat; Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Muang, Thailand: Arintaya Phrommintikul and Wanwarang Wongcharoen and Siriluck Gunaparn; Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Muang, Thailand: Pinij Kaewsuwanna; Nakornping Hospital, Mae Rim, Thailand: Theewarut Suttana and Ketsanee Khunkong and Khanchai Siriwattana; Phramongkutklao Hospital, Rajathevee, Thailand: Panthipa Bamungpong and Waraporn Tiyanon; Police General Hospital, Pathumwan, Thailand: Usa Kitmapawanont and Supalerk Pattanaprichakul; Ramathibodi Hospital, Ratchathewi, Thailand: Bandit Naratreekoon and Kolltis Pongmorakot and Somluck Ninwaranon and Wacharin Suebjaksing and Khanchit Likittanasombat; Ratchaburi Regional Hospital, Muang, Thailand: Doungrat Cholsaringkarl; Siriraj Hospital, Bangkoknoi, Thailand: Warangkana Boonyapisit and Napawan Pornnimitthum and Satchana Pumprueg; Songklanagarind Hospital, Hat Yai, Thailand: Ratchanee Sirichai and Arthiya Sriwichian and Treechada Wisaratapong and Sirichai Cheewatanakornkul; Srinagarind Hospital, Muang, Thailand: Benjaporn Silaruks and Kittisak Sawanyawisuth and Songkwan Silaruks; Thammasat University Hospital, Klongluang, Thailand: Siripan Hongsuppinyo and Oranong Thangpet and Pisit Hutayanon; Uthai Hospital, Uthai, Thailand: Siriwan Ratchasikaew and Chuleerat Kongsin and Seksan Chawanadelert; King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Pathumwan, Thailand: Rudeewan Khattaroek and Yongkasem Vorasettakarnkij and Pairoj Chattranukulchai; Saint Louis Hospital, Sathorn, Thailand: Boonsert Chatlaong; Sunprasitthiprasong Hospital, Muang, Thailand: Yingsak Santanakorn; Banphaeo Hospital, Banphaeo, Thailand: Khompiya Kanokphatcharakun; Maharaj Nakornsrithammarat Hospital, Muang, Thailand: Janwamol Phangyota and Atthakorn Wutthimanop and Thanawan Chaiyapong and Piya Mongkolwongroj; Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Muang, Thailand: Kanchana Sanit and Wattana Wongtheptien and Sasivimon Jai-Aue; Naresuan University Hospital, Muang, Thailand: Ampai Tangsirira and Suthasinee Poomiphol and Thanakorn Laksomya.

Turkey

Baskent University Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey: Armagan Altun and Ozge Ayar; Uludag University Medical Faculty, Bursa, Turkey: Ali Aydinlar and Hulya Saribocek and Mustafa Fehmi Bireciklioglu; Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Kayseri, Turkey: Ramazan Topsakal and Emine Yilmaz and Serpil Kilic and Kurtulus Ozdemir and Beyza Sakli; Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey: Zeki Ongen and Fuat Polat and Gamze Avinc; Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital, Ankara. Turkey: Mehmet Ali Felekoglu and Faruk Yilmaz and Tilbe Kundak; Adana Numune Training and Research Hospital, Adana, Turkey: Durmus Yildiray Sahin and Hasan Koca and Balci Funda; Ondokuz Mayis Univ. Med. Fac., Samsun, Turkey: Cansu Kiris and Ozcan Yilmaz; Cumhuriyet Uni. Med. Fac., Sivas, Turkey: Funda Aras and Osman Beton and Mehmet Birhan Yilmaz; Inonu Uni. Med. Fac., Malatya, Turkey: Hasan Pekdemir and Murdem Keten; Cukurova University Medical Faculty, Adana, Turkey: Mesut Demir and Gulsum Daglik; Gaziantep University Medical Faculty Sahinbey Educational Research Hospital, Gaziantep, Turkey: Sinan Bilecen and Murat Sucu; Hacettepe University Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey: Levent Sahiner and Deniz Koca; Memorial Ankara Hospital, Ankara, Turkey: Sercan Okutucu and Begum Yetis Sayin and Ali Oto and Deniz Koca and Sebnem Sebnem; Istanbul University Cardiology Institute, Istanbul, Turkey: Gamze Avinc and Murat Ersanli; Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey: Ertugrul Okuyan and Ekrem Bilal Karaayvaz and Rifat Yildirim and Sinan Varol and Fatih Kizkapan and Gamze Avinc; Turkiye Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey: Dursun Aras and Didem Civit.

Argentina

CENPEC Investigaciones, Ciudad A. de Buenos Aires, Argentina: Florencia Rolandi and Natalia Vensentini and Vanesa Hansen; Sanatorio NOSTI, Rafaela, Argentina: Mariana Zillo and Martin Racca and Adrian Cesar Ingaramo and Carola Ricotti and Osvaldo Jose Angel Costamagna; Sanatorio Jozami, La Banda, Argentina: Gustavo Alberto Sambadaro; Clinica Instituto Medico Adrogue, Adrogue, Argentina: Andrea Alvarez D'Amelio and Pablo Omar Schygiel and Vanina Fernandez Caputi; Hospital Centro de Salud Zenon Santillan, San Miguel de Tucuman, Argentina: Hector Luciardi; SOS San Bernardo Medicina Prepaga SA, San Miguel de Tucuman, Argentina: Sofia Graciela Berman; Instituto Ave Pulmo, Mar del Plata, Argentina: Felicitas Fernandez Voena and Pablo Dragotto; Sanatorio de la Mujer, Rosario, Argentina: Maria de los Milagros Mercedes Had and Andres Javier Kleiban; Sanatorio Rio Negro, Cipolletti, Argentina: Nestor Centurion; Corporacion Medica de Gral. San Martin S.A., San Martin, Argentina: Andrea Alvarez D'Amelio and Vanina Campisi and Mariano Fanuele and Agustina Ahuad Calvelo and Rodolfo Andres Ahuad Guerrero; Hospital Provincial Enrique F. Erill, Capital Federal, Argentina: Flavio Javier Zurbrigk and Anabela Martinelli and Leonel Adalberto Di Paola; Sanatorio Mariano Pelliza, Munro, Argentina: Ricardo Dario Dran and Carlos Hector Gimenez; Instituto Medico CER, Quilmes, Argentina: Alicia Sossich and Fernando Colombo Berra and Cintia Schenkel and Javier Egido and Salinger Melina; Fundacion Favaloro, Buenos Aires, Argentina: Emilio Daniel Alaguibe and Lucia Campo and Enrique Pablo Gurfinkel and Branco Mautner and Matias Jose Fosco; Hospital Interzonal de Agudos Eva Peron, San Martin, Argentina: Victor Alfredo Sinisi; Hospital Italiano de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina: Andrea Santoro and Luis Rodolfo Cartasegna and Maria Fernanda Alzogaray and Viviana Novas and Jesica Florencia Tinto; Sanatorio San Martin, Venado Tuerto, Argentina: Romina Cabrini and Javier Matkovich and Valentina Garate and Oscar Alberto Gomez Vilamajo and Maria Eugenia Said Palladino; Hospital Italiano Garibaldi, Rosario, Argentina: Laura Susana Sanziani and Fabian Diez and Jose Luis Ramos and Cintia Martinelli and Amaru Lopez; Centro Medico Dra Laura Maffei Investigacion Clinica Aplicada, Ciudad Autonoma Buenos Aires, Argentina: Miguel Angel Vallejo and Marcelo Yantorno and Lucas Tonelli and Laura Maffei and Roxana Del Valle Martinez and Maria Goicoechea and Sonia Sassone and Micaela Vallejo and Graciela Beatriz Perez Prados and Marina Ingratta; Instituto Cardiovascular de Rosario, Rosario, Argentina: Anibal Agustin Damonte and Luciana Arias and Alejandro Meirino and Gerardo Zapata; Instituto Cardiovascular Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autonoma Buenos Aires, Argentina: Ignacio Nicolas De Urquiza and Jorge Atilio Belardi and Diego Conde and Alexandra Navarro and Juan Pablo Costabel; Unidad de Cardiologia Clinica, Buenos Aires, Argentina: Maria Paula Giacomi and Guillermo Giacomi and Ana Laura Tufare and Ramon Carrizo and María Florencia Edén; Sanatorio Modelo Quilmes SA, Bu enos Aires, Argentina: Roberto Nicolás Potito and Silvina Borchowiec and Tatiana Bruno and Adrian Demetrio Hrabar and Alberto Alfredo Fernandez and Jorgelina Casala and Claudia Funosas and Ana Lucia Cappi; Hospital Dr Jose Maria Cullen, Santa Fe, Argentina: Mario Alberto Berli and Paula Berli and Florencia Berli Milagros and Germán Maehara; Hospital Universitario Austral, Pilar, Argentina: Mariana Foa Torres and Celso Arabetti and Fabian Ferroni.

Brazil

HUOC-UPE - Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz da Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil: Dário Celestino Sobral Filho and Eveline Lustosa; Hospital Santa Marcelina, São Paulo, Brazil: Luis Soares and Isabel Santos and Jefferson Jaber; Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, Brazil: Simone Barroso and Luciana Vidal Armaganijan and leber Serafim and Maria Isabel Del Monaco; Hospital Cardiologico Costantini, Curitiba, Brazil: Carolina Stoll and Costantino Roberto Frack Costantini and Costantino Costantini Ortiz and Daniele Komar; Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil: Camila Fonseca and Felipe da Silva Paulitsch and André Steffens; Via Médica, Goiânia, Brazil: Lohana Borges Queiroz and Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso de Souzaem; Hospital de Messejana Dr Carlos Alberto Studart Gomes, Fortaleza, Brazil: Dafne Lopes and João David de Souza Neto; Consultório Dr José Márcio Ribeiro, Belo Horizonte, Brazil: José Márcio Ribeiro; Hospital Cidade, Salvador, Brazil: Denise Guanaes and Marcelo Silveira Teixeira; Núcleo de Pesquisa Clínica S/S, Curitiba, Brazil: Verena Araujo Paulo Ross and Luana Herek; Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil: Silvia Poletti and Leonardo Pires; ICSC - Instituto de Cardiologia de Santa Catarina, São José, Brazil: Vera Lucia Pereira and Daniel Moreira; Santa Casa De Curitiba, Curitiba, Brazil: Leonardo Spolaor and Mariana Rodrigues Pius and Juliane Woehl and José Carlos Moura Jorge; IMC - Instituto de Moléstias Cardiovasculares de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil: Eduardo Palmegiani and Priscila Fabri and Adalberto Menezes Lorga Filho and Clotildes Queirantes; Hospital São Lucas da PUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil: Tulio Ruaro Reichert and Fernanda Chieza and Luiz Bodanese and Rosa Vieira Homem and Ellen Hettwer Magedanz; Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Roberta Perreira and Marcelo Westerlund Montera; Incor - Instituto do Coração - HCFMUSP, São Paulo, Brazil: Carlos Henrique Del Carlo and Eliane Fernandes; Hospital Felício Rocho, Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Maria Celia Marinho and Tânia Félix Lorenzato Fonseca and Jamil Abdalla Saad and Eduardo Belisario Falchetto; Clínica Paulista de Doenças Cardiovasculares Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil: Raquel Franchin Ferraz and Fernando Augusto Alves da Costa; Hospital Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil: Renato Lopes and Mayara Vioto Valois; HRAN - Hospital Regional da Asa Norte, Brasilia, Brazil: Lenisa Vila Boas and Gilson Roberto de Araújo; IMV - Instituto De Medicina Vascular Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre, Brazil: Livia Pereira and Patricia Ely Pizzato and Milene Santos and Euler Roberto Manenti and Rafael Luiz Rech; HMCP - Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro - PUC-Campinas, Campinas, Brazil: Larissa Trama and Carla Vicente and Camila Ormundo and Midia Costa and Jose Francisco Kerr Saraiva; ICM - Instituto do Coração de Marília, Marília, Brazil: Lilian Stefanie da Silva and Daiane Santos and Alexandre Rodrigues and João Carlos Ferreira Braga and Fábio Villaça Guimarães Filho; Unicárdio Unidade Clínica e Cardiológica Ltda., João Pessoa, Brazil: Paulo Gottardo and Alexandre Negri; Centro Multidisciplinar de Estudos Clínicos – CEMEC, São Caetano do Sul, Brazil: Carlos Moncada and Marcos Vinicius Seroqui; Sociedade Hospitalar Angelina Caron, Campina Grande do Sul, Brazil: Cristina Paula Corrêa and Luiz Gustavo Vieira Torres and Dalton Precoma; Hospital Ipiranga, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Fernando Roquette; CARDRESEARCH - Cardiologia Assistencial, Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Ludmila Carvalho and Gilmar Reis; Hospital de Ensino Padre Anchieta, São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil: Caroline Nanzer Vital and José Da Silveira and Rodrigo Pavani and Roberto Álvaro Ramos Filho; Hospital Lifecenter, Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Bruna Edilena Paulino Azevedo and Estêvão Lanna Figueiredo and Gustavo Fonseca Werner; ICT - Instituto do Coração do Triângulo, Uberlândia, Brazil: Roberto Vieira Botelho and Iara Resende; Hospital São Vicente de Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Melissa Mazzoni and Cláudio Munhoz da Fontoura Tavares; IPCEM - Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica para Estudos Multicêntricos - Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, Brazil: Silvia Oss Emmer and Fábio Eduardo Camazzola and Edimar Daros and Helius Carlos Finimundi and Sara Cardoso Boscato; Incor - Instituto do Coração - HCFMUSP, São Paulo, Brazil: Cristiano Pisani and Muhieddine Omar Chokr and Hurgo Bellotti Lopes and Ricardo Clemente Mingireanov and Talita Barbosa and Selma Cristina Quaia Fortunato and Eliane Fernandes; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil: Priscila Agliardi and Adriano Kochi and Fernanda Igansi; IMV - Instituto De Medicina Vascular Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre, Brazil: Nurma Ramos Pereira and Aline de Cassia Vieira dos Santos and Máurer Pereira Martins and Ana Paula Macagnan; INACTIVE Trymed Biocancer Centro de Pesquisa Clínica S.A., Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Jakeline Alves de Oliveira Gomes and César Cássio Broilo França and Ana Paula Drummond Wainstein and Edmar Geraldo Ribeiro; IPCARDI - Instituto de Pesquisa Cardiovascular, Caxias do Sul, Brazil: Fábio Alban and Gisele Biazus; HRPC - ULBRA, Canoas, Brazil: Guido Bernardo Aranha Rosito and Heveline Roesch and Larissa Pacheco and Tatiana Vargas and Diego Alcoba; Hospital Agamenon Magalhães, Recife, Brazil: Fernanda Freire and Sheylla Ribeiro and João Batista de Moura Xavier Moraes Junior; Hospital São Vicente de Paulo, Passo Fundo, Brazil: Gilmar Junior and Norberto Toazza Duda and Rogério Tadeu Tumelero and Leticia Mortari; Hospital de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil: Osvaldo Lourenço da Silva Júnior and Daniele Cristine Esteves and Osana Maria Coelho Costa Mouco and Maria Angelica Benez Teixeira Lemos and Nadielly Codonho Góes and Lilia Maia and Marcelo Arruda Nakazone; IMC - Instituto de Moléstias Cardiovasculares Tatuí, Tatuí, Brazil: Roberto Simões de Almeida and Bruna Unterkircher; Vivecor Clínica Médica e Cardiológica - Unidade Campinas, Campinas, Brazil: Fernanda Jannuzzi and Marco Antonio Dias and Ney Carter do Carmo Borges; ICDF - Instituto de Cardiologia do Distrito Federal, Brasília, Brazil: Etineia Gomes Lino and Angela Lopes and Luís Gustavo Gomes Ferreira.

Chile

Centro de Investigaciones Clínicas de la Universidad Católica, Santiago, Chile: Ivonne Padilla and Jara Carmen and Ivonne Padilla and Ramón Corbalán; Centro Medico Stockins y Larenas, Temuco, Chile: Carola Lara and Benjamin Aleck Joseh Stockins Fernandez; Hospital Sotero del Rio, Santiago, Chile: Humberto Montecinos and Yessica Campisto; Centro de Estudios Cardiologicos y de Medicina Interna, Temuco, Chile: Ana Rebolledo and Elda Molina and Fernando Lanas; Hospital Padre Alberto Hurtado, Santiago, Chile: Martín Larico Gómez; Hospital Carlos Van Buren, Valparaiso, Chile: Margarita Vergara and Carlos Astudillo; Hospital Complejo Asistencial Barros Luco, Santiago, Chile: Carlos Conejeros; Hospital de Talca, Talca, Chile: Patricio Marin Cuevas; Hospital Clinico de la Fuerza Aerea de Chile, Santiago, Chile: Alejandro Forero; Hospital San Juan de Dios La Serena, La Serena, Chile: Claudio Bugueño Gutiérrez and Patricia Cortes; Hospital Clinico de Magallanes Dr Lautaro Navarro Avaria, Punta Arenas, Chile: Juan Aguilar; Hospital Base Osorno, Osorno, Chile: Sergio Potthoff Cardenas and Nelly Garcia Dominguez; Hospital Base Valdivia, Valdivia, Chile: Jessica Munoz Oyarzon and German Eggers; Clinica Santa Lucia, Santiago, Chile: Veronica Olguin and Cesar Houzvic; Hospital del Salvador, Santiago, Chile: Carlos Rey; Hospital Clinico Regional Dr Guillermo Grant Benavente, Talcahuano, Chile: Germán Arriagada and Claudio Villan Araneda; Hospital Naval Almirante Nef, Viña del Mar, Chile: Gustavo Charme Vilches.

Mexico

Unidad de Investigacion Clinica en Medicina S.C., Monterrey, Mexico: Carlos Jerjes Sanchez Diaz and Unidad de Investigacion Clinica Cardiometabolica de Occidente S.C., Guadalajara, Mexico: Maria Ruiz Cornejo and Marissa Gonzalez and Jesus Jaime Illescas Diaz; Hospital General Dr Miguel Silva, Morelia, Mexico: Conne Lizbeth Gonzalez Garcia and Raul Leal Cantu; Consultorio Médico del Dr Ernesto Germán Cardona Muñoz, Guadalajara, Mexico: Maria Guadalupe Ramos Zavala; Hospital Angeles del Pedregal S.A. de C.V., Mexico, Mexico: Ricardo Cabrera Jardines; The American British Cowdray Centro Medico ABC, Mexico City, Mexico: Victor Roa Castro and Salome Altamirano Bellorin and Nilda Espinola Zavaleta; Centro Medico de las Americas, Merida, Mexico: Sergio Villarreal Umaña; Centro de Especialidades Medicas del Estado de Veracruz Dr Rafael Lucio, Jalapa, Mexico: Sukey Ochoa Aybar and Enrique Lopez Rosas; Hospital Cardiologica Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico: Irma Espinosa and Guillermo Antonio Llamas Esperón and Ana Ramirez Ibarra and Maria Elena Felix Hernandez; Instituto de Cardiologia y Medicina Vascular, Monterrey, Mexico: Priscila Guajardo and Gerardo Pozas; Consultorio Médico del Dr Ernesto Germán Cardona Muñoz, Guadalajara, Mexico: Sandra Hernandez Gonzalez and Ernesto Cardona Muñoz; Centro de Investigación cardiovascular, Acapulco, Mexico: Maria Candelaria Mancilla Ortiz and Norberto Matadamas Hernandez; Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suarez, Mexico, Mexico: Adriana Ortiz and Adolfo Leyva Rendon; Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, Mexico, Mexico: Rafael Trujillo Cortes and Norberto Garcia Hernandez; Centro para el Desarrollo de la Medicina y de Asistencia Medica Especializada S.C., Culiacan, Mexico: Luis Gerardo Gonzalez Salas and Nora Mendoza and Manuel de los Rios Ibarra; Virgen Cardiovascular Research SC, Guadalajara, Mexico: Jose Vega Gonzalez and Humberto Jimenez and Luis Ramon Virgen Carrillo; Unidad de Investigación Clinica en Medicina, S.C., Monterrey, Mexico: David Lopez Villezca; Instituto Cardiovascular de Monclova, S de RL de CV, Monclova, Mexico: Carlos Hernandez Herrera and Daniel Martinez Vasquez; Hospital Angeles Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico: Juan Jose Lopez Prieto; Centro para el Desarrollo de la Medicina y de Asistencia Medica Especializada S.C., Saltillo, Mexico: Rodolfo Gaona Rodriguez; Hospital de Jesus. I.A.P., Cuauhtemoc, Mexico: Angelica Villeda and Efrain Villeda Espinosa and Miriam Chavarria; Unidad de Investigacion en Salud de Chihuahua SC, Sede Juarez, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: David Flores Martinez; Hospital Angeles Puebla, Puebla, Mexico: Jose Velasco Barcena; Unidad de Investigacion en Salud de Chihuahua SC, Sede Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico: Rosalva Avena and Omar Fierro Fierro; Cardioarritmias e Investigacion S.C., San Luis Potosi, Mexico: Ignacio Rodriguez Briones and Irene Elizabeth Lira González; Hospital Central Dr Ignacio Morones Prieto, San Luis Potosi, Mexico: Natalia Nikitina and Teresa Izquierdo and Jose Luis Leiva Pons; Hospital de Especialidades Centro Medico Puerta de Hierro, Zapopan, Mexico: Gabriela Santana and Humberto Alvarez Lopez; Clinica de Estudios Medicos SC, Guadalajara, Mexico: Rafael Olvera Ruiz; Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutricion Dr Salvador Zubiran, Mexico, Mexico: Fernando Flores Silva and Carlos Gerardo Cantu Brito; Centro de Investigacion Cardiologica EPI M, Mexico, Mexico: Eduardo Julian Jose Roberto Chuquiure Valenzuela; CardioPrevent SC, Durango, Mexico: Lidia Martínez Lares and Roxana Reyes Sanchez and Paulina Sida Perez; Centro de Investigacion Alberto Bazzoni S.A. de C.V., Torreon, Mexico: Erika Jeanette Gonzalez Felix and Karla Daniela Monreal de Luna and Aglaé Romo Cerda and Alberto Esteban Bazzoni Ruiz and Juan Carlos Ubillo Davila and Jose Luis Recio Gonzalez; Phylasis Clinicas Research S. de R.L. de C.V., Cuautitlan Izcalli, Mexico: Fatima Perez and Luis Alberto Martinez Cruz and Julio Alberto Perez Sanchez and Nayeli Soto and Oscar Martin Lopez Ruiz and Eduardo Montiel and Oscar Nandayapa Flores; Centro para el desarrollo de la Medicina y de Asistencia Medica Especializada S.C., sede Mexico, Distrito Federal, Mexico: Patricia Padilla Macias and Roberto Arriaga Nava; Accelerium S de RL de CV, Monterrey, Mexico: Antonio Salinas and Sergio Piña Toledano and Jesus David Morales Cerda; Centro de Investigacion Cardiovascular y Metabolica, Tijuana, Mexico: Daniela Cienfuegos and Marittza Arasely Uribe Rios and Guadalupe Susan Ramos Garcia and Pedro Fajardo Campos and Pedro Fajardo Garcia and Adriana Garcia Mejia and Patricia Ortiz and Glenda Hernandez and Irene Ortega; Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Hospital Universitario Dr Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Monterrey, Mexico: Carlos Rivera Ramos and Mario Benavides Gonzalez.

Austria

LKH - Universitätsklinikum Graz, Graz, Austria: Marianne Brodmann and Thomas Gary and Claudia Wöhrer; Barmherzige Brueder Konventspital Linz, Linz, Austria: Kurt Lenz; Praxis für Innere Medizin - Dr Claus Hagn - Voels, Voels, Austria: Claus Hagn; Ordination - Dr Foechterle - Linz, Linz, Austria: Johannes Foechterle and Johannes Foechterle; Landeskrankenhaus Feldkirch, Feldkirch, Austria: Karl-Martin Ebner and Alexander Vonbank and Heinz Drexel and Susanne Wäger and Peter Schwerzler and Helga Winkler; Wilhelminenspital der Stadt Wien, Wien, Austria: Claudia Wegmayr and Claudia Wegmayr and Kurt Huber and Ioannis Tentzeris; SMZ Süd - Kaiser Franz Josef Spital Wien, Wien, Austria: Andrea Podczeck-Schweighofer and Andrea Podczeck-Schweighofer and Fritz Freihoff and Thomas Priesnitz; Hanusch Krankenhaus der WKGG Wien, Wien, Austria: Michael Winkler and Roland Breier; LKH Kirchdorf, Kirchdorf an der Krems, Austria: Thomas Mark and Bruno Schneeweiss and Adrian Mirtl; LKH - Bad Ischl, Bad Ischl, Austria: Alfons Gegenhuber; Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brueder Wien, Wien, Austria: Wilfried Lang and Agnes Lischka-Lindner; AKH - Medizinische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria: Sabine Eichinger-Hasenauer and Lisbeth Eischer; Ordination - Dr Kaserer - Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria: Peter Kaserer and Peter Kaserer; Humanomed Zentrum - Althofen, Althofen, Austria: Josef Sykora; KRAGES Burgenlaendische Krankenanstalten - LH Güssing, Güssing, Austria: Heribert Rasch; LKH - Universitätsklinikum der PMU Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria: Uta Hoppe and Bernhard Strohmer and Bernhard Strohmer and Lynne Hinterbuchner and Erika Prinz.

Belgium

Parqué, Jean-Luc, Mouscron, Belgium: Jean-Luc Parqué; BVBA Dr Luc Capiau, Wetteren, Belgium: Hilde Capiau and Luc Capiau and Farah Banaeian; AZ Sint-Maarten, Mechelen, Belgium: Ellen Deweerd and Oscar Semeraro and Muriel Delvigne and Tom Vydt and Hans Rombouts and Chris Scheurwegs andGeert Vervoort and Ellen Potoms and Inez Mestdagh and Sofie Drieghe; ZNA Stuivenberg, Antwerpen, Belgium: Benjamin Scott and Tim Weyn and Emile Keyzer and Bart Wollaert and Marleen Bogaert and Martine Oreglia and Inge Joris and Dirk Denie and Christine Jacobs; A.Z. KLINA, Brasschaat, Belgium: Dieter De Cleen and Steven Hellemans and Johan Salembier and Frank Cools and Jef Verheyen and Walter Smolders and Nancy Simons and Veerle Thyssen; Private Practice Cardiology, De Pinte, Belgium: Geert Hollanders; VZW Regionaal Ziekenhuis Jan Yperman, Ieper, Belgium: Veerle Soufflet and Jan De Keyser and Dries De Cock and Jan Vercammen and Melissa de Vos; Maria Ziekenhuis Noord-Limburg vzw, Overpelt, Belgium: Bert Vanhauwaert and Dirk Van Lier and Cathy Kuppens and Dirk Faes and Ann Vandorpe; SPRL MG Balthazar & Ballard, Natoye, Belgium: Yohan Balthazar; Centre Hospitalier Hutois, Huy, Belgium: Marc Delforge and Francoise Gits; CHU UCL Namur, Mont-Godinne, Yvoir, Belgium: Olivier Xhaet and Fabien Dormal; Heilig Hart Ziekenhuis, Mol, Belgium: Harry Striekwold and Dirk Vandenbroeck; AZ Turnhout - Campus Sint-Elisabeth, Turnhout, Belgium: John Thoeng; AZ Sint-Lucas - Campus Sint-Lucas, Gent, Belgium: Hans Vandekerckhove and Chantal Smessaert and Hugues Verloove and Katarina Van Beeumen and Jan Nimmegeers and Christophe Borin and Frauke Gorre and Kurt Hermans and An-Kristin Ascoop and Nancy de Weerdt; Cliniques du Sud-Luxembourg, Arlon, Belgium: Monique Raepers and Georges Mairesse; AZ Delta, Roeselare, Belgium: Emma Vanhalst and Peter Pollet and Wim Anné and Tine Casier; CHU de Charleroi - Hôpital André Vésale, Montigny-le-Tilleul, Belgium: Veronica Piamonte and Ivan Blankoff and Asuncion Conde Y Bolado; Huisartsen Het Laar, Merksem, Belgium: Peter Vandenbossche and Sophie Deckers and Michel Beutels and Lisa Helvasto; AZ Zeno, Knokke-Heist, Belgium: Flor Kerkhof and Stefan Verstraete and Ann Dhondt; BVBA Peter Vandergoten Cardiologie, Overijse, Belgium: Peter Vandergoten; Clinique Saint Jean, Brussel, Belgium: Joseph Richa and Philippe Purnode and Severine Tahon; CHU Ambroise Paré, Mons, Belgium: Pascal Godart and Anna-Maria Barbuto and Marianne Blockmans; AZ Groeninge - Kennedylaan, Kortrijk, Belgium: David Derthoo and Christiaan De Niel and Van Hulle Tim and Hannelore Van Eeckhoutte and Tim Boussy and Marlies De Coninck; CHC - Cliniques de l'Espérance, Montegnée, Belgium: Philippe Desfontaines and Gabriella Tincani; AZ Glorieux, Ronse, Belgium: Charlotte Vantomme and Alex Heyse and Becker Alzand and Frederik Van Durme and Isabelle Stockman and Marloes Everaert; AZ Nikolaas, Belgium: Lies Vergauwen and Martine Lauwers and Yasmina Steyaert and Joeri Voet; RZ Heilig Hart Tienen Campus Mariendal, Tienen, Belgium: Axel De Wolf and Chris Brike.

Czech Republic

Ordinace interniho lekarstvi, Praha 2, Czech Republic: Jan Bultas; Fakultni nemocnice v Motole, Praha 5, Czech Republic: Petra Antonova and Jiri Zika and Alexandra Lindourkova and Petr Jansky and Jaromir Chlumsky and Petr Potuznik and Renata Kratochvilova; Nemocnice na Frantisku, Praha 1, Czech Republic: Lucie Mahdalikova and Lucie Bockova and Adam Sulc and Lenka Dastychova and Rudolf Spacek; InterKardioML s.r.o., Marianske Lazne, Czech Republic: Vilma Machova; Ordinace interniho lekarstvi, Prague, Czech Republic: Hana Lubanda and Milan Zidek and Eva Zidkova and Alena Lorenzova; Privatni interni ambulance, Brno, Czech Republic: Ondrej Ludka and Alexandra Ludkova; General practitioner s.r.o., Ostrava - Vitkovice, Czech Republic: Daniel Michalik and Josef Olsr; Thomayerova nemocnice, Praha, Czech Republic: Lubos Kotik and Marketa Lajnerova; Nemocnice Slany, Slany, Czech Republic: Michaela Horejsi and Lenka Janska and Tomas Drasnar and Blazej Racz; Poliklinika Masarykuv Dum, s.r.o, Trutnov, Czech Republic: Richard Ferkl; Privatni interni a kardiologicka ambulance, Chrudim, Czech Republic: Vera Hubacova and Jan Hubac; Ustredni vojenska nemocnice Praha, Praha 6, Czech Republic: Ilja Kotik and Jaroslava Novakova and Petr Krca and Eva Krcova; Nemocnice Znojmo, Znojmo, Czech Republic: Eva Prochazkova and Zdenek Monhart and Maria Majerníkova; Poliklinika Humanitas, Bilovec, Czech Republic: Hana Burianova; Poliklinika RAVAK, Pribram 8, Czech Republic: Martina Valtova and Iva Kopeckova and Ondrej Jerabek; Kardio-Pisova, s.r.o., Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic: Jana Pisova; Kardiologicka ambulance-Petrova, Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic: Iveta Petrova; Orlickoustecka nemocnice, a.s., Usti nad Orlici, Czech Republic: Vratislav Dedek; AVICENA -KARDIOLOGIE INTERNA s.r.o., Praha 1, Czech Republic: Jakub Honek and Michaela Honkova; Interni lekarstvi-ALINPED s.r.o., Praha 6, Czech Republic: Petr Podrazil; Krajska zdravotni, a.s. - Nemocnice Teplice, o.z., Teplice, Czech Republic: Petr Reichert and Lenka Zizkova; Fakultni nemocnice Brno, Brno, Czech Republic: Ruzena Labrova and Jindrich Spinar; Fakultni nemocnice u sv. Anny v Brne, Brno, Czech Republic: Veronika Vyhlidalova and Miroslav Novak and Jolana Lipoldova; Fakultni nemocnice v Motole, Praha 5, Czech Republic: Alexandra Lindourkova and Vaclav Durdil; Nemocnice Novy Jicin a.s., Novy Jicin, Czech Republic: Katarina Plocova; Krajska zdravotni, a.s. - Masarykova nemocnice v Usti nad Labem, o.z., Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic: Sarka Smetankova and Lenka Zizkova and Jiri Lastuvka and Jakub Sveceny.

Denmark

Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark: Jørn Nielsen; Bispebjerg_Hospital, Copenhagen NV, Denmark: Helena Dominguez; Sydvestjyds Sygehus Esbjerg, Esbjerg, Denmark: Anne-Mette Oksbjerg Svenningsen and Joan Hummelshøj and Lene Margrethe Tanggaard and Ulrik Hintze and Annette Nygaard; Hvidovre_Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark: Søren Rasmussen; Næstved Sygehus, Næstved, Denmark: Arne Bremmelgaard and Christina Ellervik; Fredericia Sygehus, Fredericia, Denmark: John Markenvard and Kirsten Vesterager; Lægerne Nordens plads, Frederiksberg, Denmark: Jan Børger; Tønder Lægehus Nord, Tonder, Denmark: Jorgen Solgaard; Lægerne Dommergaarden, Vejle, Denmark: Ebbe Eriksen and Peter Simonsen and Jakob Tilma; Lægerne Henrichsen Bonde og Løkkegaard, Lyngby, Denmark: Thomas Løkkegaard; Michael Bruun, Struer, Denmark: Michael Bruun; Lægehuset i Jerslev, Jerslev, Denmark: Jacob Mertz; Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark: Annie Therkelsen and Morten Schou; Frederiksberg Hospital, Fredriksberg, Denmark: Jesper Hansen and Frank Paganelli and Ilan Raymond and Helena Dominguez and Dorte Raae; Holbæk Sygehus, Holbæk, Denmark: Lise Jensen and Therese Bang-Hansen and Michael Olsen.

Finland

Tampereen yliopistollinen sairaala, Tampere, Finland: Pekka Raatikainen and Kati Helleharju and Hannaleena Nappila and Virpi Palomaki and Olli Arola; Turun yliopistollinen keskussairaala, Turku, Finland: Juhani Koistinen and Tuija Vasankari and Carmela Viitanen.

France

Hôpital Nord - CHU Marseille, Marseille, France: Didier Sanchez and Franck Paganelli and Floriane Robin; Groupe Hospitalier Sud - Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, Pessac, France: Frédéric Casassus; Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris Cedex 15, France: Jean-Yves Le Heuzey; CHU de Toulouse - Hôpital Rangueil, Toulouse cedex 9, France: Michel Galinier and Nathalie Rosolin; Clinique Saint Joseph - Groupe Hospitalier Prive du Centre Alsace, Colmar Cedex, France: Yannick Gottwalles; Hôpital Nord - CHU Marseille, Marseille, France: Audrey Morioni and Pauline Armangau; Centre Hospitalier Public du Cotentin, Cherbourg - Octeville, France: Philippe Loiselet; Cabinet du Dr Jean-Joseph Muller, Strasbourg, France: Jean-Joseph Muller; Centre Hospitalier de Chateauroux, Chateauroux, France: Mohamed Bassel Koujan; CH de Frejus-Saint Raphael, Frejus, France: André Marquand; Centre Hospitalier du Val d'Ariege, Saint Jean de Verges, France: Sylvain Destrac; Centre Cardiologique du Nord, Saint-Denis, France: Baptiste Dubois and Olivier Piot; Centre Hospitalier de Pau, Pau Cedex, France: Josette Couleru and Christine Murguet-Badia and Nicolas Delarche and Anne Colomes; Nouvelles Cliniques Nantaises, Nantes Cedex 2, France: Jean-Pierre Cebron and Nathalie Decarsin; Cabinet medical prive, Plan de Cuques, France: Maxime Guenoun; Cabinet prive, Paris, France: Dominique Guedj-Meynier; CH d'Albi, Albi cedex 9, France: Lokesh A G and Christine Beltra; Cabinet medical de cardiologie, Cannes, France: Serge Assouline; Hôpital Saint Joseph - Paris, Paris, France: Mathieu Zuber and Anne Bonnetain; Hôpital Bichat - Claude Bernard, Paris, France: Pierre Amarenco and Agnes Kemmel; Centre Hospitalier de la côte Basque, Bayonne, France: Emmanuel Ellie; Cabinet prive de cardiologie, Paris, France: James Kadouch; Centre Hospitalier de Beziers, Beziers cedex, France: Pierre-Yves Fournier; Cabinet prive de cardiologie, Houilles, France: Jean-Pierre Huberman and Nestor Lemaire; CH de Mulhouse - Hôpital Emile Muller, Mulhouse Cedex, France: Gilles Rodier; Centre Hospitalier - La Rochelle, La Rochelle cedex, France: Xavier Vandamme; Groupe Hospitalier Pellegrin - Hôpital Pellegrin, Bordeaux Cedex, France: Sylvain Ledure and Igor Sibon and Sabrina Debruxelles and Camille Girollet and Stephane Olindo and Mathilde Poli and Pauline Renou and Sharmila Sagnier and Nathalie Heyvang and Ledure Sylvain; CHU Poitiers - Hôpital la Milétrie, Poitiers Cedex, France: Jean-Philippe Neau; CHU Nice - Hôpital Saint Roch, Nice Cedex 1, France: Marie Hélène Mahagne and Alain Suissa; Cabinet Medical Marseille (GP), Marseille, France: Antoine Mielot; Cabinet Medical, Seysses, France: Marc Bonnefoy; Cabinet Médical, Le Pradet, France: Jean-Baptiste Churet and Cabinet medical, Toulon, France: Vincent Navarre and Cabinet medical privé, Roquevaire, France: Frederic Sellem and Cabinet medical privé, Saint Mandrier sur Mer, France: Gilles Monniot and Cabinet médical privé, Seysses, France: Jean-Paul Boyes and Docteur Bernard Doucet, Wassy, France: Bernard Doucet and Centre Hospitalier de Langres, Langres, France: Michel Martelet and Cabinet medical prive, Aubagne, France: Désiré Obadia and Cabinet prive de cardiologie, Salon de Provence, France: Bernard Crousillat and Centre Hospitalier de Langres, Langres, France: Joseph Mouallem and Centre Hospitalier d'Arras, Arras cedex, France: Corinne Lepot and Etienne Bearez; Cabinet medical -Jean Philippe Brugnaux, PARIS, France: Jean Philippe Brugnaux; CHU de Reims, Houilles, France: Alain Fedorowsky; Centre Hospitalier de la côte Basque, Bayonne, France: Angeline Barreau and Aurélie Pons and Estelle Corrihons and Jean-Baptiste Berneau; APRCL, Bordeaux, France: Margaux Treuil-Peraldi and Nadege Ansoult and Frédéric Chemin and Caroline Moreau.

Germany

Staedtisches Klinikum Dresden Standort Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Germany: Andreas Ulbrich and Vivantes Klinikum Neukoelln, Berlin, Germany: Friederike Girke and Harald Darius and Roya Sartipi and Viola Jaerisch and Elke Luczak and Carsten Meincke and Stefan Sommer and Astrid Maselli; Praxis Dr Koeniger, Ebrach, Germany: Georg Koeniger; Praxis, Berlin, Germany: Andreas Kopf; Gemeinschaftspraxis, Loehne, Germany: Uwe Gerbaulet; Gemeinschaftspraxis, Camburg, Germany: Bernd-Thomas Kellner; Gemeinschaftspraxis Internisten Kelkheim, Kelkheim, Germany: Gabriele Jass and Thomas Schaefer; Gesundheitszentrum Gelstertal, Grossalmerode, Germany: Ute Weiser and Jan Purr; Praxis Dr Eißfeller, Woellstein, Germany: Karla Kirchner-Volker and Enno Eißfeller; Gemeinschaftspraxis Dr Zauzig, Dr Weber, Koeln, Germany: Heinz-Dieter Zauzig; Praxis Dr Riegel, Wolfsburg, Germany: Peter Riegel; Cardiologicum Dresden und Pirna, Dresden, Germany: Juergen Wurziger and Adrienne Heuer and Christoph Axthelm and Benjamin Schaefer; Praxis Dr Heinz, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany: Afra Heinz and Gerd-Ulrich Heinz; Praxis Dr Menke, Hannover, Germany: Holger Menke; Gemeinschaftspraxis, Berlin-Neukoelln, Germany: Andreas Pustelnik; Ihr Landarzt Praxis fuer Familienmedizin, Neubukow, Germany: Stefan Zutz and Andrea Talkenberger; Praxis Dr Eder, Karlsfeld, Germany: Wolfgang Eder and Zuzana Babjakova; Praxis Dr Rehling, Sand am Main, Germany: Guenter Rehling; Praxis Dr med. Glatzel, Hannover, Germany: Dirk Glatzel; Gemeinschaftspraxis Prof. Ludwig, Dr Honl, Willich, Germany: Norbert Ludwig; Praxis Dr med. Sandow, Berlin, Germany: Petra Sandow; Praxis Dr med. Wiswedel, Fuerth, Germany: Henning Wiswedel; Praxis Dr med. Wildenauer, Bad Brueckenau, Germany: Cosmas Wildenauer; Klinikum Pirna GmbH, Pirna, Germany: Christoph Reichelt and Stephanie Zincke and Marian Christoph and Steffen Schoen; Internistische Facharztpraxis Dr Schwarz, Zwenkau, Germany: Toralf Schwarz and Heike Riessbeck; Praxis Dr med. Babyesiza, Engelskirchen-Ruenderoth, Germany: Regina Voelkel-Babyesiza and Adyeri Babyesiza; Praxis Dr med. Kropp, Luebeck, Germany: Sylvia Simon and Maximilian Kropp and Hildegard Floegel; Praxis Dr med. Zimny, Bad Pyrmont, Germany: Marianne Hintze and Hans-Hermann Zimny; Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres. Kahl, Ibrom, Fredenbeck, Germany: Friedhelm Kahl; Praxis Dr med. Caspar, Ottenbach, Germany: Andreas Caspar; Praxis Dr med. Omankowsky, Berlin, Germany: Sabine Omankowsky; Gesundheitszentrum Halle-Neustadt, Halle, Germany: Torsten Laessig; Praxis Dr med. Hartmann, Krombach, Germany: Hermann-Josef Hartmann and Diana Amrhein and Ramona Heeg; Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres med. Lehmann, Fuldatal, Germany: Aileen Grytzmann and Gunter Lehmann; Praxis Dr Bindig, Geogensgmuend, Germany: Hans-Walter Bindig; Praxis Dr Hergdt, Obermichelbach, Germany: Susanne Hergdt and Gunter Hergdt; Praxis Dr Reimer, Anderbeck, Germany: Cornelia Reimer and Dietrich Reimer; Praxis Dr Hauk, Nussbach, Germany: Christl Hubrich and Joachim Hauk; GP Wuttke/Michel, Lutherstadt Eisleben, Germany: Holger Michel; Praxis Dres. Erdle und Budelmann, Ense, Germany: Werner Erdle; Praxis Dr Dorsch, Paderborn, Germany: Aneta Tetlak and Wilfried Dorsch; Praxis Dr Dshabrailov, Osnabrueck, Germany: Janna Dshabrailov; Praxis Dr Rapp, Haigerloch, Germany: Karl-Albrecht Rapp; Fachuebergreifende Praxisgemeinschaft Dr med. H. Boeneke/ R. P. Vormann, Lienen - Kattenvenne, Germany: Reinhold Vormann and Daniela Nicolaus; Praxis Dr Mueller, Berlin, Germany: Thomas Mueller; Praxis Dr Mayer, Langenfeld, Germany: Peter Mayer; Praxis Dr Horstmeier, Harsewinkel, Germany: Jan Zak and Uwe Horstmeier; Praxis Birkenallee, Papenburg, Germany: Volker Eissing and Gabriele Menken; Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres Hey und Krenzel, Paderborn, Germany: Heinz Hey; Praxis Dr Leuchtgens, Bad Woerishofen, Germany: Heinz Leuchtgens; Praxis Dr Lilienweiss, Kamen, Germany: Volker Lilienweiss; Berufsausübungsgemeinschaft Dres. med. Kolitsch / Mueller, Katzhuette, Germany: Anja Fleck and Heiner Mueller; Praxis Dr med. Christian Schubert, Leipzig, Germany: Christian Schubert; Praxis Dr med. Herrmann Lauer, Viersen, Germany: Herrmann Lauer; Praxis Dipl. med. Thomas Buchner, Neustrelitz, Germany: Thomas Buchner; Praxis Dr med. Gunter Brauer, Cottbus, Germany: Gunter Brauer and Diana Kroll; Praxisgemeinschaft Dr med. H. Gliem und FA S. Kamin, Goehren, Germany: Susanne Kamin; Praxis Dr med. Karsten Mueller, Graefenhainichen, Germany: Gabriela Mueller and Karsten Mueller; Fachärztin für Allgemeinmedizin, Apolda, Germany: Kerstin Schmidt and Sylvia Baumbach; Praxis Dr med. Abdel-Qader, Winsen, Germany: Dagmar Mohrmann and Muwafeg Abdel-Qader; Gemeinschaftspraxis Stenzel, Ebert, Otto, Riesa, Germany: Lisa Mann and Antje Richter and Gunter Stenzel and Romy Meinecke and Hans-Holger Ebert; Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany: Stefanie Boehme and Kerstin Flint and Carsten Schwencke; Staedtisches Klinikum Dresden Standort Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany: Thomas Wolf and Sebastian Schellong and Carsen Mueller and Johannes Ullrich and Roswitha Frommhold and Kerstin Spranger and Birgit Voigts and Sylvia Weichelt and Mario Hahn; Universitaetsklinikum Ulm, Ulm, Germany: Dominik Buckert and Peter Bernhardt and Uta Dichristin; FAZ Dresden-Neustadt GbR, Dresden, Germany: Kerstin Bonin and Kerstin Mikes and Franziska Guenther and Laszlo Karolyi; Praxis Dr med. Britta Sievers, Henstedt-Ulzburg, Germany: Britta Sievers and Charite - Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany: Nesrin Nasser and Wilhelm Haverkamp and Philipp Lacour and Paula Muenkler and Luis Weitbrecht and Katja Hubert; Vivantes Klinikum Hellersdorf, Berlin, Germany: Florian Busch and Jens-Uwe Roehnisch and Maria Schuppe.

Hungary

Szent Rokus Korhaz es Intezmenyei, Budapest, Hungary: Andras Papp and MeDOC EGeszsegkozpont, Budapest, Hungary: Andras Vertes and Szantai MED Bt., Hodmezovasarhely, Hungary: Gabor Szantai and Kanizsai Dorottya Korhaz, Nagykanizsa, Hungary: Andras Matoltsy and Tunde Kiss; UNO Medical Trials Kft., Budapest, Hungary: Nikosz Kanakaridisz; Debreceni Egyetem, Debrecen, Hungary: Zoltan Boda; Tolna Megyei Balassa Janos Korhaz, Szekszard, Hungary: Erno Kis and Jusztina Feil; COROMed-SMO Kft., Pecs, Hungary: Balazs Gaszner; CEE Research Kft., Kisvarda, Hungary: Ferenc Juhasz and Peter Jen; Dental-Med Co. Bt., Satoraljaujhely, Hungary: Veronika Forgo and Gizella Juhasz and Szilvia Gergely and Petra Gombos; Gottsegen Gyorgy Orszagos Kardiologiai Intezet, Budapest, Hungary: Eszter Fulop and Sandor Kancz; Szent Janos Korhaz es Eszak-budai Egyesitett Korhazak, Budapest, Hungary: Boglarka Vandrus and Zoltan Laszlo and Zoltan Radics; Obudai Egeszsegugyi Centrum Kft., Budapest, Hungary: Zsolt May and Fruzsina Sztanyik; Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest, Hungary: Marianna Szabo and Bela Merkely and Nora Sydo; Fejer Megyei Szent Gyorgy Egyetemi Oktato Korhaz, Szekesfehervar, Hungary: Maria Hollósiné Kovács and Ebrahim Noori; Pecsi Tudomanyegyetem, Pecs, Hungary: Tamas Habon and Szilvia Kovacsne Levang; SzSzB Megyei Korhazak es Egyetemi Oktatokorhaz, Nyiregyhaza, Hungary: Attila Szilagyi and Peter Polgar; Sopron Medical Egeszsegugyi Szolgaltato Kft., Csorna, Hungary: Gabriella Szalai; Belinus Bt., Debrecen, Hungary: Sandor Vangel; Bacs-Kiskun Megyei Korhaz, Kecskemet, Hungary: Andras Nagy; QUALICLINIC Eu-i Szolg. es Kutatasszervezo Kft, Budapest, Hungary: Eszter Kiralyhazine Gyorke and Gabriella Engelthaler; Clinexpert Kft., Budapest, Hungary: Judit Ferenczi and David Gulyas and Emese Dohovits and Mihaly Egyutt.

Italy

Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale degli Spedali Civili di Brescia (Presidio Spedali Civili), Brescia, Italy: Giuliana Martini; Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova Azienda Ospedaliera di Reggio Emilia, Italy: Leone Maria Cristina and Ospedale degli Infermi, Rimini, Italy: Eros Tiraferri; Azienda Ospedaliera Pugliese Ciaccio, Catanzaro, Italy: Rita Santoro; Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale di Cremona (Istituti Ospitalieri di Cremona), Cremona, Italy: Sophie Testa and Cinzia Zecca; Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria "Federico II", Napoli, Italy: Giovanni Di Minno and Pasquale Ambrosino; Fondazione IRCCS CA' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy: Simon Braham and Marco Moia; Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Niguarda (Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda), Milano, Italy: Roberta Fritella and Teresa Maria Caimi and Roberta Frittella and Stefania Brusorio; Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria "Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele", Catania, Italy: Maria Tessitori; Azienda Ospedaliera di Perugia Ospedale S. Maria della Misericordia, Perugia, Italy: Giancarlo Agnelli and Federica Macellari and Erika D’Agostini and Marta Fedele; A.O.U. Senese Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Siena, Italy: Roberto Cappelli; Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi, Firenze, Italy: Daniela Poli; Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy: Roberto Quintavalla and Piera Maria Ferrini; Azienda Ospedaliera S. Anna e S. Sebastiano, Caserta, Italy: Claudio Femiano; Ospedale della Val di Chiana Santa Margherita, Cortona, Italy: Franco Cosmi; IRCCS Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy: Raimondo Massaro and Raffaele Fanelli and Carmela DArienzo; Azienda Ospedaliera Bianchi Melacrino Morelli, Reggio Calabria, Italy: Vincenzo Oriana and Vincenzo Oriana and Gianluca Sottilota; Presidio Ospedaliero SS. Trinità Sora, Sora, Italy: Raffaele Reggio; Azienda Ospedaliera Nazionale Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo, Alessandria, Italy: Roberto Santi; Ospedale di Bentivoglio, Bentivoglio, Italy: Leonardo Pancaldi and Giulio Boggian; Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Roma, Italy: Raimondo De Cristofaro and Leonardo Di Gennaro; Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Policlinico Sant'Orsola Malpighi, Bologna, Italy: Luisa Salomone and Giuliana Guazzaloca and Giuliana Guazzaloca; Ospedale Santa Maria Goretti, Latina, Italy: Angelo De Blasio and Carlo Ciabatta; Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Sette Laghi (Presidio Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi), Varese, Italy: Alfredo Bianchi and Jorge Salerno Uriate and Riccardo Gorla; Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy: Flavia Lillo and Cinzia Scarone; Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale di Monza (Presidio San Gerardo), Monza, Italy: Monica Carpenedo and Enrico Maria Pogliani; Istituto Auxologico Italiano -I.R.C.C.S., Milano, Italy: Dr Luca Grappiolo and Laura Maria Lonati; Azienda Ospedaliera Card. G. Panico, Tricase, Italy: Simona Longo and Michele Accogli; Presidio Ospedaliero ASUR-Senigallia, Senigallia, Italy: Antonio Mariani and Francesca Calcagnoli and Anna Patrignani; ASL CN1 Ospedale Maggiore Strada Statale Trinità, Fossano, Italy: Mauro Feola; Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy: Arturo Raisaro and Katharina Granzow; Ospedale San Giuseppe e Melorio, Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Italy: Luciano Fattore and Cosimo Nave; Azienda Sanitaria Locale 2 Olbia, Olbia, Italy: Andrea Mauric; USL 2 Umbria - Distretto di Perugia, Perugia, Italy: Fabrizio Germini and Piero Grilli and Giuliana Duranti and Gregorio Baglioni; ASL 2 Umbria, Perugia, Italy: Massimo Alunni; AUSL 2 Umbria, Perugia, Italy: Luca Tedeschi and Maria Settimi and Mario Berardi; USL 2 Umbria - Distretto di Perugia, Perugia, Italy: Valerio Pannacci and Fulvio Forcignanò and Angelo Giombolini; Medicina di Gruppo - Borgo di Terzo, Bergamo, Italy: Sergio Nicoli; ASL Arezzo, Arezzo, Italy: Paolo Ricciarini and Roberto Nasorri; ASL CN 1, Cuneo, Italy: Antonio Argena and Pierdomenico Bossolasco and Bartolomeo Allasia; AUSL Parma, Parma, Italy: Paolo Ronchini and ASL Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy: Claudio Bulla and Luciano Foppa; ASL Milano, Milano, Italy: Filippo Tradati and Maria Luisa Bottarelli and Antonino Tomasello; Azienda Ospedaliera Sant'Andrea-Università di Roma La Sapienza, Roma, Italy: Massimo Volpe; Azienda Ospedaliera di Rilievo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Napoli, Italy: Maria D'Avino; Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy: Maria Grazia Bongiorni and Luca Segreti; Presidio Ospedaliero della Misericordia, Grosseto, Italy: Silva Severi and Marco Breschi; Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Torrette di Ancona, Italy: Federico Guerra and Graziela Rangel and Alessandro Capucci; Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Italy: Elena Banfi and Veronica Pacetti and Corrado Lodigiani; ASL 3 Genovese di Genova, Genova, Italy: Enrico Salomone; Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti di Foggia, Foggia, Italy: Rosanna Villani and Aurelio Lo Buglio and Gaetano Serviddio; Centro Cardiologico Monzino-IRCCS, Roma, Italy: Viviana Biagioli and Claudio Tondo; Azienda Ospedaliera di Perugia Ospedale S. Maria della Misericordia, Terni, Italy: Giuseppe Ciliberti and Ezio Mesolella and Giuseppe Ambrosio; Azienda Ospedaliera S. Anna e S. Sebastiano, Caserta, Italy: Giovanni Cimmino and Paolo Golino; Azienda Servizi Sanitari 1 Triestina, Trieste, Italy: Carmine Mazzone; Anthea Hospital, Reggio Calabria, Italy: Giuseppe Campagna and Pierpaolo Occhilupo and Saverio Iacopino.

The Netherlands

Stichting Trombosedienst Maastricht, Maastricht, Netherlands: Hugo ten Cate; Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, Netherlands: J.H. Ruiter; St Jans Gasthuis, Weert, Netherlands: Andreas Lucassen; Trombosedienst Apeldoorn-Zutphen, Apeldoorn, Netherlands: Mirjam Debordes and Henk Adriaansen and Jan Jaap van Putten; Trombosedienst Ziekenhuis Rivierenland, Tiel, Netherlands: Jannie Boon and Maarten Bongaerts; Stichting Cardiologie Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Misannia Boersma-Slootweg and Salcudean Tania and Mathijs Pieterse and Kris Gorrebeeck; WECOR, Etten-Leur, Netherlands: Coen Guldener; Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Locatie Oost, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Femmy Bosman and Laura Breukel and Jean-Paul Herrman and Jennifer Knaake and Sander Niehe and Sandra Bruin and A.J.K. Roelse; Bethesda Diabetes Research Center, Hoogeveen, Netherlands: Josien Krikken and S.H.K. The and Eileen Van Warners and Floor Geerlings; Franciscus Gasthuis, Rotterdam, Netherlands: P.R. Nierop and Ingrid Danse; Diaconessenhuis Meppel, Meppel, Netherlands: Pieter Hoogslag and Agaath Stallinga-de Vos; ETZ Elisabeth, Tilburg, Netherlands: Paul Melman and Tim van der Kley and Guido van Leeuwen and Walter Hermans and A. Pronk and Riny van de Loo and Jeanne de Graauw; Gelre Ziekenhuizen, Apeldoorn, Apeldoorn, Netherlands: Anastazia Jerzewski and B.E. Groenemeijer and E. M. Koomen and Suzanne Jansen and Rina Mulder; Slingeland Ziekenhuis, Doetinchem, Netherlands: W. Terpstra and Anneke Grunewald; Huisartsenpraktijk Ewijk, Ewijk, Netherlands: Paul Buiks; St Antonius Ziekenhuis, Nieuwegein, Netherlands: Josine te Kaat and Wesley Jetten and Malu Kelderman and Judith De Graaf and L.V.A. Boersma and Mike Bosschaert and Boudewijn Uppelschoten and Pim Tonino.

Norway

Oslo Universitetssykehus HF, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway: Ingrid Dominguez and Dan Atar and Bjørn Løvås and Trude Berge and Eivind Berge and Hege Claussen; Østlandske Hjertesenter, Moss, Norway: Per Anton Sirnes and Vivi Nilsen; Asker Legesenter, Asker, Norway: Erik Gjertsen; Helse Møre og Romsdal HF, Ålesund, Norway: Torstein Hole and Rigmor Bøen and Silje Rasmussen; Vestlandske Hjertesenter AS, Bergen, Norway: Knut Erga; Spesialistgruppen, Nesttun, Norway: Arne Hallaråker and Marie O'Donovan; Trondheim Hjeresenter, Trondheim, Norway: Gunnar Skjelvan and Sissel Strand; Gransdalen Legesenter, Oslo, Norway: Anders Østrem; Løvenstadtunet Legesenter, Løvenstad, Norway: Beraki Ghezai; Nymoen Legekontor (General Practice), Kongsberg, Norway: Arne Svilaas and Kristin Ringdalen; Stavanger Medisinske Senter AS, Stavanger, Norway: Peter Christersson; Hallset legesenter, Trondheim, Norway: Torbjørn Øien and Aase Jekthammer; Langbølgen legesenter, Oslo, Norway: Svein Høegh Henrichsen and Anne Berit Lensebraaten; Sykehuset i Vestfold HF, Tønsberg, Norway: Jan Erik Otterstad and Karin Ausen; Vestfold Hjertesenter, Sandefjord, Norway: Jan Berg-Johansen and Hege Antonsen.

Poland

Instytut Kardiologii im. Prymasa Tysiaclecia Kardynala Stefana Wyszynskiego, Warszawa, Poland: Janina Stepinska and Elzbieta Kremis and Anna Konopka; SPZOZ w Lubartowie, Lubartow, Poland: Andrzej Gieroba; Indywidualna Specjalistyczna Praktyka Lekarska Małgorzata Biedrzycka, Starogard Gdanski, Poland: Malgorzata Biedrzycka and Malgorzata Biedrzycka and Lukasz Biedrzycki; Prywatny Gabinet Lekarski, Piotrkow Trybunalski, Poland: Michal Ogorek and Aleksandra Szczepanska; Wojewodzki Szpital Zespolony w Kielcach, Kielce, Poland: Beata Wozakowska-Kaplon and Beata Wozakowska-Kaplon and Radoslaw Bartkowiak and Kamila Wesolowska and Rafal Bzymek and Elzbieta Jaskulska-Niedziela; Dolnoslaski Szpital Specjalistyczny im.T.Marciniaka- Centrum Medycyny Ratunkowej, Wroclaw, Poland: Edyta Szuchnik and Krystyna Loboz-Grudzien and Magdalena Dziuba and Barbara Rzyczkowska and Maria Loboz-Rudnicka; Mazowiecki Szpital Specjalistyczny Sp. z o.o., Radom, Poland: Jaroslaw Kosior and Jaroslaw Kosior and Ewa Pawlik-Rak; Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Wojewodzki, Gorzow Wielkopolski, Poland: Wieslaw Supinski and Wieslaw Supinski and Anna Szulowska and Jerzy Bartnik; Szpital Wojewodzki nr 2 w Rzeszowie, Rzeszow, Poland: Jerzy Kuzniar and Elzbieta Korczowska and Janusz Romanek; Mazowiecki Szpital Specjalistyczny im. Dr Józefa Psarskiego w Ostrołęce, Ostroleka, Poland: Janusz Jankielewicz and Roman Zaluska and Dariusz Andrzejewski and Dorota Kruczyk and Przemyslaw Chojnowski and Wojciech Rogowski and Adam Komlo; Niepubliczny Zaklad Opieki Zdrowotnej, Nowa Sol, Poland: Jaroslaw Hiczkiewicz and Jaroslaw Hiczkiewicz and Wojciech Faron; NZOZ - Przychodnia Zespolu Lekarzy Rodzinnych w Szamocinie, Szamocin, Poland: Lucyna Swiatkowska-Byczynska and Lucyna Swiatkowska-Byczynska and Wojciech Wieczorek; Szpital Specjalistyczny im. S. Zeromskiego SPZOZ, Krakow, Poland: Joanna Araminowicz and Diana Kociolek and Lech Kucharski and Adriana Jaremczuk-Kaczmarczyk; Specjalistyczne Centrum Medyczne CORDIMED, Gdansk, Poland: Marcin Gruchala and Bartosz Curyllo and Anna Frankiewicz; Miejskie Centrum Medyczne im. dr Karola Jonschera w Łodzi, Lodz, Poland: Justyna Rychta and Jolanta Niedek and Piotr Minc and Halina Krystyna Kowalczyk and Karol Cieslak; NZOZ Amamed, Warszawa, Poland: Maciej Olszewski and Pawel Szalecki; Clinmedica Research OMC, Skierniewice, Poland: Grzegorz Kania and Pawel Wojewoda and Agnieszka Sidor; Zespol Opieki Zdrowotnej, Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski, Poland: Malgorzata Krzciuk and Malgorzata Krzciuk and Piotr Walasik and Anna Szpotowicz and Anna Barszcz and Malgorzata Ozgowicz; COPERNICUS Podmiot Leczniczy Sp. z o. o., Gdansk, Poland: Zbigniew Lajkowski and Zbigniew Lajkowski; Wojskowy Instytut Medyczny, Warszawa, Poland: Agata Krzesiak-Lodyga and Ewelina Kowal and Bozenna Ostrowska-Pomian and Anna Jackun-Podlesna and Katarzyna Kalin; Wojewodzki Szpital Specjalistyczny we Wroclawiu, Wroclaw, Poland: Jerzy Lewczuk and Marzena Stopyra-Poczatek and Agata Kaczmarzyk-Radka and Magdalena Wilgat-Szecowka and Renata Romaszkiewicz and Daniel Blaszczyk; Szpital Wojewodzki im. M. Kopernika w Koszalinie, Koszalin, Poland: Elzbieta Zinka and Elzbieta Zinka and Agata Pawelska-Buczen and Karolina Zakutynska-Kowalczyk and Anita Biernacka; Indywidualna Specjalistyczna Praktyka Lekarska dr n. med. Agnieszka Karczmarczyk Specjalista Chorob, Szczecin, Poland: Agnieszka Karczmarczyk and Agnieszka Karczmarczyk and Robert Kaliszczak; I Szpital Miejski im dr E.Sonnenberga, Lodz, Poland: Malgorzata Chmielnicka-Pruszczynska and Dorota Lesniewska-Krynska; SPSK Nr 7 SUM w Katowicach Gornoslaskie CM im. prof. Leszka Gieca, Katowice, Poland: Seweryn Nowak and Iwona Wozniak-Skowerska; Samodzielny Publiczny Centralny Szpital Kliniczny, Warszawa, Poland: Grzegorz Opolski and Agnieszka Kolodzinska and Marek Kiliszek; Szpital Wielospecjalistyczny im. dr Ludwika Blazka w Inowroclawiu, Inowroclaw, Poland: Marek Bronisz and Jacek Szafranski and Artur Jarzebowski and Malgorzata Brzustowska and Marcin Mielcarek; NZOZ ALL-MED Centrum Medyczne Specjalistyczne Gabinety Lekarskie, Lodz, Poland: Nikolina Roszczyk and Dorota Rozewska-Furmanek and Marcin Ogorek and Pawel Ptaszynski; NZOZ Medicus Sp. z o.o., Gliwice, Poland: Grazyna Glanowska and Grazyna Glanowska and Przemyslaw Wilczewski; Szpital Wojewodzki im. Prymasa Kardynala Stefana Wyszynskiego, Sieradz, Poland: Jerzy Leszczynski and Piotr Ruszkowski and Monika Smichura and Mateusz Splawski; Wojewodzki Szpital Zespolony im. L. Rydygiera w Toruniu, Torun, Poland: Lukasz Bernat and Grzegorz Skonieczny and Anna Raczynska and Malgorzata Troszczynska and Agnieszka Metzgier-Gumiela and Maria Jaworska-Drozdowska and Tomasz Traczyk and Grzegorz Trzcinski and Ryszarda Piotrowicz; Szpital Powiatowy SP ZOZ, Olawa, Poland: Ryszard Sciborski and Ryszard Sciborski and Ewa Bekieszczuk and Beata Dolecka and Joanna Starak-Marciniak; SP CSK im. prof. K. Gibinskiego SUM, Katowice, Poland: Malgorzata Klata and Boguslaw Okopien and Iwona Kobielusz-Gembala and Marcin Basiak and Witold Szkrobka and Tomasz Dybala; Szpital Specjalistyczny im.H.Klimontowicza w Gorlicach, Gorlice, Poland: Wojciech Kurdzielewicz and Elzbieta Broton and Piotr Kukla and Piotr Kukla and Maciej Kluczewski and Marcin Czamara; Medicus Bonus Sp z o.o., Wagrowiec, Poland: Krzysztof Galbas; Medicus Bonus Sp z o.o., Sroda Wielkopolska, Poland: Agata Markiewicz; Indywidualna Specjalistyczna Praktyka Lekarska w Dziedzinie Kardiologii lek. med. Krzysztof Cymerman, Gdynia, Poland: Krzysztof Cymerman and Alina Cieszynska; Poradnia Kardiologiczna Jarosław Jurowiecki, Gdansk, Poland: Jaroslaw Jurowiecki and Monika Machnikowska and Jolanta Neubauer-Geryk and Sebastian Tybura and Monika Figura-Chmielewska; NZOZ Pro-Cordis Sopockie Centrum Bad. Kardiolog., Sopot, Poland: Pawel Miekus; NZOZ Centrum Medyczne HCP, Poznan, Poland: Waldemar Myszka and Agata Nowak and Aleksandra Wierzbicka and Karolina Majewska; Centrum Medyczne Medyk, Rzeszow, Poland: Ewa Miedlar and Monika Ambicka and Stanislaw Mazur and Karolina Bugajska and Anna Starok and Artur Chmielowski and Michal Mazur; Lecznice Citomed Sp. z o.o., Zespol Przychodni, Torun, Poland: Grazyna Jaguszewska and Aleksandra Lysek-Jozefowicz and Roman Lysek and Grazyna Szumczyk-Muszytowska and Lukasz Wojnowski; NZOZ Przychodnia Specjalistyczna "Medica" Bogdan Walko, Lublin, Poland: Jacek Baszak and Bogdan Walko and Malgorzata Jargiello-Baszak and Wojciech Brzozowski; NZOZ Vitamed, Bydgoszcz, Poland: Malgorzata Zyczynska-Szmon and Waldemar Gadzinski and Joanna Luka and Rafal Cichomski and Teresa Rusicka-Piekarz and Marian Krzyzanowski; Uniwersyteckie Centrum Kliniczne, Gdansk, Poland: Ewa Staniszewska and Pawel Gutknecht and Agnieszka Niemirycz-Makurat and Michal Wrobel and Ewa Kochanska and Grzegorz Raczak and Mateusz Sciborski and Sebastian Tybura and Ewa Lewicka and Ludmila Danilowicz-Szymanowicz and Malgorzata Szwoch and Monika Figura-Chmielewska and Jolanta Skalska and Barbara Opielowska-Nowak and Lukasz Drelich and Justyna Kabat and Beata Dudzik-Richter; Centrum Medyczne CDS, Wroclaw, Poland: Malgorzata Guziewicz and Dorota Kustrzycka-Kratochwil and Ewa Domanska and Malgorzata Sukiennik-Kujawa; Krakowski Szpital Specjalistyczny im. Jana Pawla II, Krakow, Poland: Ewelina Lichota and Jadwiga Nessler and Ewa Gasior and Marta Wegrzynowska and Pawel Rostoff and Rafal Mariankowski; Kutnowski Szpital Samorzadowy Sp. z o.o., Kutno, Poland: Jozef Lesnik.

Russia

Medical Centre "Alians", Kirovsk, Russia: Vera Eltishcheva; SBEI HPE "Orenburg State Medical University" of the MoH of the RF, Orenburg, Russia: Roman Libis and Irina Kulchenkova and Natalia Shkatova; SAIH "Republican Clinical Hospital # 2", Kazan, Russia: Gadel Kamalov; SBIH of Novosibirsk Region "Clinical Emergency Hospital #2", Novosibirsk, Russia: Olga Volodicheva and Olga Kungurtseva and Dmitry Belenky; StP SHI Clinical hospital of St Luka, Saint-Petersburg, Russia: Liudmila Egorova; SBEI HPE "Yaroslavl State Medical University" of the MoH of the RF, Yaroslavl, Russia: Alexander Khokhlov and Olga Sinitsina and Svetlana Speshilova and Svetlana Chugunnaya and Elena Lileeva; State Autonomous Healthcare Institution "City Clinical Hospital #7", Kazan, Russia: Eduard Yakupov; SBIH of Moscow "City Clinical Hospital # 17", Moscow, Russia: Dmitry Zateyshchikov and Irina Zotova; FSBI “Scientific-research Institute for Complex Problems of cardiovascular disease”, Kemerovo, Russia: Evgeniya Zhuravleva and Elena Gorbunova and Tatyana Gorshkova and Olga Barbarash and Yulia Belenkova and Tatiana Kupriyanova; SBIH of Novosibirsk Region "Clinical Emergency Hospital #2", Novosibirsk, Russia: Olga Kungurtseva and Marina Blinkova and Olga Miller; SHI “Regional Clinical Hospital”, Tver, Russia: Dmitry Platonov and Yurij Orlov and Evgeniy Mazur; SPb SBIH "City Hospital # 38 n.a. N.A. Semashko", Saint-Petersburg, Russia: Konstantin Zrazhevskiy; SPb SBIH "City Pokrovskaya Hospital", Saint-Petersburg, Russia: Tatyana Novikova and Fatima Bitakova; City Clinical Hospital n.a. Botkin, Moscow, Russia: Yulia Moiseeva; SHI “Center of Occupational Pathology”, Saint-Petersburg, Russia: Elena Polkanova; SBIH of Moscow "City Clinical Hospital # 61", Moscow, Russia: Konstantin Sobolev and Svetlana Erofeeva; TSBIH "Krasnoyarsk Interdistrict Clinical Hospital of Emergency Medical Care n.a. N.S. Karpovich, Krasnoyarsk, Russia: Maria Rossovskaya and Igor Motylev and Alexander Gubanov and Irina Konyukhova and Olga Suslova and Galina Zubeeva; DCH on Station Chelyabinsk of JSC "Russian Railways", Chelyabinsk, Russia: Ashot Agakhanyan and Yulia Shapovalova; FSBI "Polyclinic #3" of the Department for Presidential Affairs of the RF, Moscow, Russia: Alla Kolesnikova; FSBSI “Scientific Research Institute of Therapy and Preventive Medicine”, Novosibirsk, Russia: Konstantin Nikolaev and Alla Ovsyannikova; FSBI "Russian Cardiological Scientific and Industrial Complex" of the MoH of the RF, Moscow, Russia: Elizaveta Panchenko and Ekaterina Kropacheva and Oksana Zemlianskaia; SBIH of Moscow" City Clinical Hospital # 51", Moscow, Russia: Ekaterina Volchkova and Anna Zateyshchikova; SPb SBIH "City Polyclinic # 109", St Petersburg, Russia: Victor Kostenko; FSBI "Research Institute for Cardiology" of Siberian Branch RAMS, Tomsk, Russia: Sergey Popov and Roman Batalov; FSAEI HE " First Moscow State Medical University n.a. I.M. Sechenov" of the MoH of the RF, Moscow, Russia: Maria Poltavskaya and Anait Dumikyan and Olga Machilskaya; LLC "Alliance Biomedical - Russian Group", Saint-Petersburg, Russia: Tamara Kolesova and Anton Edin; FSBI "Polyclinic # 5" of the Department for Presidential Affairs of the RF, Moscow, Russia: Elena Aleksandrova and Olga Kropova; FSAEI HE " First Moscow State Medical University n.a. I.M. Sechenov" of the MoH of the RF, Moscow, Russia: Vladimir Ivashkin and Oksana Drapkina and Olga Korneeva; SPb SBIH "City Pokrovskaya Hospital", Saint-Petersburg, Russia: Alexander Vishnevsky; FSBMEI HPE "Military Medical Academy n.a. S.M. Kirov" of the MoD of the RF, St Petersburg, Russia: Galina Nagibovich and Galina Monako and Oleg Nagibovich and Elena Kuznetsova; Therapeutic Department of Clinical Hospital n.a. N.A. Semash, Yaroslavl, Russia: Elena Novikova and Tatyana Medvedeva and Petr Chizhov and Yulia Ivanova and Marina Gurmach; RBIH "Cardiological Dispensary", Ivanovo, Russia: Olga Lebedeva and Elena Shutemova and Svetlana Romanchuk and Svetlana Rachkova and Svetlana Rachkova and Margarita Ovchinnikova; SPb SBHI "City Policlinic #74", Kronshtadt, Russia: Daria Konyushenko and Polina Kuchuk and Mikhail Sergeev; Alupka City Hospital, Alupka, Russia: Borys Kurylo; State Institution "Crimean state medical university named after S.I. Georgievskiy", Simferopol, Russia: Alexey Ushakov.

Spain

Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain: Enrique Rodriguez F and Jose Mara Guerra and Concepcion Alonso and Marcos Rodriguez Garcia and Douglas Alvarez and Anna Espallargas and Enrique Pena Garcia and Xavier Vinolas and Francisco Mendez Zurita; Policlinic Viladecans, Viladecans, Spain: Nieves Palomo Merchan and Pere Alvarez Garcia and Vianeth Rios; Complejo Hospitalario Universitario A Coruña, A Coruña, Spain: Beatriz Herrero Maeso and Carmen Gomez Castillo and Marta Fernandez and Diego Otero Tomera and Javier Batlle Fonrodona and Maria Fernanda Lopez Fernandez and Joana Costa Pinto Prego de Faria and Teresa Martinez; Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain: Alejandro Molina Leyva and Rosa Macias and Manuel Molina and Miriam Jimenez and Francisco Jose Bermudez Jimenez and Daniel Castro Fernandez and Maria Jose Jimenez Fernandez and Mercedes Cabrera Ramos and Luis Tercedor Sanchez and Miguel Alvarez and Maria Molina Jiménez and Carolina Torres; Centro de Salud El Cristo, Oviedo, Spain: Norberto Sierra and Salvador Tranche Iparraguirre and Joaquin Aracil Villar; EAP Mataro-6 (Gatassa-El Maresme), Mataro, Spain: Antonio Negrete Palma and Stela Sanchez Parra and Pere Toran Monserrat and Josep Sorribes Lopez; Centro de Salud la Orden, Huelva, Spain: Emilio Marquez Contreras and CAP Llança, Llança, Spain: Stela Sanchez Parra and Jordi Isart Rafecas; Centro de Especialidades Virgen de la Cinta, Huelva, Spain: Juan Motero Carrasco; Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Majadahonda, Spain: Mateo Cordoba and Ana Briceno Hinojo and Maria del Carmen Gutierrez del Val and Pablo Garcia Pavia and Ariadna Gonzales Segovia; Complejo Hospitalario Ruber Juan Bravo, Madrid, Spain: Manuela Pereda Armayor and Miguel Perez Carasa and Carmela Alonso and Casimiro Gomez Pajuelo; Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain: Miguel Castillo Orive and Paz Gonzalez and Irene Lasuncion and Luis Miguel Rincon Diaz; Hospital Universitario de Burgos, Burgos, Spain: Carolina Santolaya and Luis Fernando Iglesias Alonso; Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Leganes, Spain: Angel Grande Ruiz; Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Tarragona, Spain: Miriam Garcia Bermudez and Veronica Quintern and Elisabet Serralvo and Jordi Merce Klein; Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, Spain: Lilian Grigorian and Pilar Mazon and Venesa Garcia Millan and Jose Ramon Gonzalez Juanatey and Ana Seoane Blanco and Maria Moure Gonzalez; Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Sevilla, Spain: Marga Gavira Saenz and Mariela Campo Moreno and Gonzalo Baron Esquivias; C.A.P. Can Vidalet, Esplugués de Llobregat, Spain: Ines Monte Collado; C.A.P. Sitges, Stiges, Spain: Stela Sanchez Parra and Herminia Palacin Piquero; CAP Sardenya, Barcelona, Spain: Carles Brotons Cuixart; C.A.P. Horta, Barcelona, Spain: Carmen Rodrigo and Maribel Martines Mena and Ana Domenech Borras and Maria Teixido Fontanillas and Miguel Casanova GIL and Maria Ubeda Pastor and Aileen Austria and Edelmira Barraquer Feu and Esther Fernandez Escobar and Xavier Robiro Robiro and Stela Sanchez Parra and Maria Rodriguez Morato; C.A.P. El Clot, Barcelona, Spain: Carme Roca Saumell and Maria Rosa Senan Sanz and Stela Sanchez Parra and Joan Bayo i Llibre; Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain: Norberto Sierra and Cecilia Corros Vicente; Hospital Virgen del Mar, Almeria, Spain: Manuel Vida Gutierrez; Corporacio Sanitaria Parc Tauli, Sabadell, Spain: Roser Renom and Francisco Epelde Gonzalo; Complejo Asistencial de Avila, Avila, Spain: Sara Saez Jimenez and Carlos Alexandre Almeida Fernandez; Centre d'Atencio Primaria Hostalets de Balenya, Hostalets de Balenyà, Spain: Gemma Tobajas and Marc Roca and Nuria del Val Plana and Laia Riquelme Sola and Encarnacion Martinez Navarro; CAP Doctor Subirós, La Jonquera, Spain: Stela Sanchez Parra and Inma Pareja Ibar and Enrique Escriva Montserrat and Jordi Isart Rafecas; EAP Mataró-3 (Rocafonda–Palau), Mataro, Spain: Pilar Montero Alia and Ana Ferrer and Stela Sanchez Parra and Juan Jose Montero Alia; Centro de Salud Paulino Prieto, Oviedo, Spain: Norberto Sierra and Maria Barreda Gonzalez; Centre d'Atencio Primaria El Remei, Vic, Spain: Manel Terns Riera and Roger Codinachs Alsina and Maria Angels Moleiro Oliva and Marta Dachs and Anna Bartes; CS de Ventanielles, Oviedo, Spain: Norberto Sierra and Aida Iglesias Garcia and Jose Iglesias Sanmartin; EAP Mataró-1 (La Riera), Mataro, Spain: Pilar Montero Alia and Stela Sanchez Parra and Juan Jose Montero Alia and Mercedes Jimenez Gonzalez; CAP Canet de Mar, Canet de Mar, Spain: Eva Calvo Martinez and Anna CORTADA CABRERA and Monserrat OLLE BORQUE and Rolando Armitano Ochoa and Martin Cebollada del Misterio and Johan Cabeza Ramirez and Victoria Marina Ortega and Carmen Gines Garcia and Antonio Branjovich Tijuan and Eugeni Fernandez Mas and Stela Sanchez Parra and Benardi Jimeno Besa and Rosa Blanca Munoz Munoz and Maria del Mar Rodriguez Alvarez; CAP La Llantia, Mataró, Spain: Juan Herreros Melenchon; Hospital Son Llatzer, Palma de Mallorca, Spain: Joan Torres Marques and Javier Fosch and Salvador Marcus and Tomas Ripoll Vera and Yolanda Gomez Perez; Hospital Clinico Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Malaga, Spain: Miguel Lopez and Gloria Millan Vazquez and Natalia Andere and Manuel Jimenez Navarro and Lola Gomez and Hugo Nelson Orellana Figueroa and Victor Becerra Munoz and Alicia Guerrero Molina; Policlinico de Vigo-Povisa, Vigo, Spain: Luisa Sanchez Mendez and Marcelo Sanmartin Fernandez and Maria Vazquez Caamano; Hospital de Basurto, Bilbao, Spain: Izaskun Prieto and Maria Fe Arcocha Torres and Aranza Manzanal Rey and Ane Elorriaga Madariaga; Hospital San Pedro de Alcantara, Caceres, Spain: Carolina Ortiz Cortes and Javier Mendoza Vazquez and Pablo Sanchez Calderon and Luis Enrique Lezcano Gort and Carmen Simon Valero and Gema Cancho Corchado and Maria Isabel Cotilla Marco and Gonzalo Marcos Gomez; Hospital Meixoeiro, Vigo, Spain: Maria Belen Lage Bouzamayor and Alicia Martin Vila and Marta Llobet Molina and Andres Iniguez Romo and Carlos Maria Diaz Lopez and Marisol Amaro and Saleta Barbeira and Pablo Juan Salvadores and Diana Montes and Seila Costas; Centro de Salud Vallobin-La Florida, Oviedo, Spain: Eduardo Hevia Rodriguez and Norberto Sierra and Miguel Angel Prieto Diaz.

Sweden

Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset i Solna, Stockholm, Sweden: Mårten Rosenqvist; Andersbergs Hälsocentral, Gävle, Sweden: Alexander Wirdby; Centrumkliniken, Stockholm, Sweden: Jan Lindén; Capio vårdcentral Ringen, Stockholm, Sweden: Kerstin Henriksson; Vårdcentralen Norrmalm, Skövde, Sweden: Micael Elmersson; Vårdcentralen Eda, Charlottenberg, Sweden: Arnor Egilsson; Landstinget Dalarna, Gagnef, Sweden: Karin Floren and Ulf Börjesson; Kvarnsvedens vårdcentral, Borlänge, Sweden: Gunnar Svärd; S3 Clinical Research Centers, Vällingby, Sweden: Susanna Dzeletovic and Bo Liu; Husläkarna Österåker, Åkersberga, Sweden: Anders Lindh and Rose-Mari Kangert; Vårdcentralen Kristinehamn, Kristinehamn, Sweden: Lars-Bertil Olsson and Catarina Grässjö; Kils Vårdcentral, Kil, Sweden: Mikael Gustavsson; Sunne vårdcentral, Sunne, Sweden: Lars Andersson; Luthagens specialistmottagning, Uppsala, Sweden: Karina Rosenberg and Ann Mannermyr and Lars Benson; Husläkarna i Margaretelund, Åkersberga, Sweden: Claes Bothin; Hagakliniken, Göteborg, Sweden: Mina Shayesteh and Ruth Lissledal and Jessica Nyström and Ali Hajimirsadeghi; Arvika sjukhus, Arvika, Sweden: Birgitta Jansson and Björn Martinsson; Vårdcentralen Hjorten, Trollhättan, Sweden: Marianne Ericsson; Stockholm Heart Center, Stockholm, Sweden: Lisa Bastani and Kristina Skoglund and Faris Al-Khalili and Åke Ohlsson and Pia Löf; Karlskoga lasarett, Karlskoga, Sweden: Ann-Britt Ekstrand and Håkan Lindvall; Skånes Universitetssjukhus, Malmö, Sweden: Peter Svensson and Camilla Nilsson; Capio vårdcentral Lidingö, Lidingö, Sweden: Katarina Thörne; Capio vårdcentral Solna, Solna, Sweden: Hans Händel; Skånes Universitetssjukhus, Lund, Lund, Sweden: Anna Osberg and Pyotr Platonov; Östersunds Sjukhus, Östersund, Sweden: Orjan Stromqvist and Fredrik Bernsten and Björn Eriksson and Agneta Lindberg and Annica Olofsson; Hässleholms Sjukhus, Hässlehom, Sweden: Mari Stjernberg and Ingar Timberg; Karolinska Trial Alliance (KTA) PRIM, Stockholm, Sweden: Helena Aaröe and Katarina Risbecker and Daniel Bengtsberg and Sirin Gudmundsson and Milita Crisby and Annelie Billger; Länssjukhuset Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden: Dawid Kusiak and Grzegorz Bonkowski and Jan-Erik Karlsson and Annika Koch and Jessika Samuelsson; Ljungby Lasarettet, Ljungby, Sweden: Marita Millborg and Ann-Marie Ohlin and Agneta Andersson; Närsjukhuset Köping, Köping, Sweden: Lennart Malmqvist and Gull-Britt Eriksson and Susanne Hahn; Länssjukhuset Halmstad, Halmstad, Sweden: Johan Engdahl and Lisbeth Andersson; Capio Citykliniken Lund, Lund, Sweden: Carl-Johan Lindholm and Jörgen Thulin; Hjärt & Kärlcentrum, Södertälje, Sweden: Eva Ahbeck and Marie Aman and Aida Hot-Bjelak; Blekingesjukhuset Karlshamn, Karlshamn, Sweden: Steen Jensen and Katarina Mansson and Carl Thorsen; Centralsjukhuset Karlstad, Karlstad, Sweden: Hakan Ahlmark and Per Stalby and Anna Pedersen and Annika Lettenström and Johan Lugnegård.

Switzerland

Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Zurich, Switzerland: Jan Steffel and Ellen Saga and Stephan Winnik; Spital Uster, Ulster, Switzerland: Johann Debrunner and Daniela Amstutz and Alexander Westphalen; Kantonsspital Baden AG, Baden, Switzerland: Alexandra Grau and Isberg Henriette and Juerg H. Beer and Christian Gustav Lutz and Kirsten Steden and Laura Boos and Philipp Baumgartner and Jana Efe and Marcel Frick and Emanuel Aegerter; Geneva University Hospital, Genève 14, Switzerland: Jasmine Bruegger and Alexandre Guinand and Guillermet Elise and Dipen Shah.

Ukraine

GI L.T.Malaya Therapy National Institute of the NAMS of Ukraine, Kharkiv, Ukraine: Valeriya Nemtsova and Olena Medentseva and Iurii Rudyk and Sergiy Pyvovar; CI of Healthcare Kharkiv CCH #8 Dept of Therapy Kharkiv MA of PGE of MOHU, Kharkiv, Ukraine: Vira Tseluyko and Olga Romanenko; Kyiv City Clinical Hospital #1, Kyiv, Ukraine: Oleksandr Karpenko and Liudmyla Todoriuk and Svitlana Kizim; Cherkasy Regional Cardiological Center, Cherkasy, Ukraine: Svitlana Zhurba and Olga Proshak; Railway Transport Kharkiv CH #1 of Healthcare Center Branch of PJSC Ukr Railway, Kharkiv, Ukraine: Igor Kraiz and Ellina Kamenska; SI NSС M.D. Strazhesko Institute of Cardiology of NAMSU, Kyiv, Ukraine: Oleksandr Parkhomenko and Oleksandr Shumakov; CI Ivano-Frankivsk Reg Cl Card Center Dept of Arterial Hypertension SHEI Ivano-Frankivsk NMU, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine: Irina Kutynska and Roxolana Belegai and Iryna Kupnovytska and Andriy Sapatyi; Ivano-Frankivsk RCCD Dept of Anesthesiology with ITR SHEI Ivano-Frankivsk NMU, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine: Nestor Seredyuk and Roman Petrovskyy; Private Small Enterprise, Medical Center Pulse, Vinnytsia, Ukraine: Yuriy Mostovoy and Lesia Rasputina; City Clinical Hospital #6 of Emergency Medical Care, Simferopol, Ukraine: Oleksiy Ushakov and C.J.Em.H.,Card.dept.for treat.of pat.with myoc.infar.#2,DSMA, Dnipro, Ukraine: Olena Koval' and Pavlo Kaplan and Andrii Ivanov; City Hospital #1, Mykolaiv, Ukraine: Dmitry Plevak and Igor Kovalskiy; M.D. Strazhesko Institute of Cardiology of AMS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine: Larysa Bezrodna and Yevgeniya Svyshchenko and Olena Matova and Tetiana Ovdiienko and Maryna Mospan; SI NSС M.D. Strazhesko Institute of Cardiology of NAMSU, Kyiv, Ukraine: Olena Romanova and Oleg Sychov; National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsia, Ukraine: Galyna Berko and Mykola Stanislavchuk and Liudmyla Burdeina; CI CCH #6, Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine: Vladislav Varenov and Oleg Kraydashenko and Roman Stets and Alina Khmelyova; Lutsk City Hospital, Lutsk, Ukraine: Mykhailo Pavelko and Andriy Yagensky; OSMU of Min.of Health of Ukr.,Ch.of In.Med.#2,Un.cl.of OSMU, Odesa, Ukraine: Olena Khyzhnyak and Susanna Tykhonova; CI Zapor CCH#10 SI ZMA PGE Ch of therapy clin pharmacol & endocrin, Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine: Valentyn Mochonyi and Olena Chabanna and Inna Daniuk and Ivan Fushtey and Olexandr Palamarchuk.

United Kingdom

Laurie Pike Health Centre, Aston, United Kingdom: Dr Will Murdoch; River Brook Medical Centre, Stirchley, United Kingdom: Dr Naresh Chauhan; Wand Medical Centre, Highgate, United Kingdom: Dr Daryl Goodwin; Greenridge Surgery, Billesley, United Kingdom: Dr Louise Lumley; Grange Hill Surgery, Kings Norton, United Kingdom: Dr Ramila Patel; Ridgacre House Surgery, Quinton, United Kingdom: Dr Philip Saunders; The Greens Health Centre, Dudley, United Kingdom: Dr Bennett Wong; Marysville Medical Practice, Belle Vue, United Kingdom: Dr Alex Cameron; The Nechells Practice, 63 Rupert Street, United Kingdom: Dr Philip Saunders; The Village Surgery, Shirley, United Kingdom: Dr Niranjan Patel; Kingsbury Road Surgery, Erdington, United Kingdom: Dr P Jhittay; Northfield Health Centre, Northfield, United Kingdom: Dr Andrew Ross; Primrose Lane Surgery, Low Hill, United Kingdom: Dr M S Kainth; Dovecote Surgery, Oldbury, United Kingdom: Dr Karim Ladha; Claremont Medical Practice, Exmouth, United Kingdom: Dr Kevin Douglas; The Newbridge Surgery, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom: Dr Gill Pickavance; Wychall Lane Surgery, Kings Norton, United Kingdom: Dr Joanna McDonnell; King Street Surgery, Hereford, Hereford, United Kingdom: Dr Laura Handscombe; The Surgery, Atherstone, Atherstone, United Kingdom: Dr Trevor Gooding; Rising Brook Health Centre, Rising Brook, United Kingdom: Dr Helga Wagner; Saville Medical Group, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom: Dr Cumberlidge; Marsden Medical Practice, South Shields, United Kingdom: Prof Colin Bradshaw; Guide Post Medical Group, Chappington, United Kingdom: Dr Catherine Bromham; Oxford Terrace Medical Group, Gateshead, United Kingdom: Dr Kevin Jones; The Surgery, Bilston, Bradley, United Kingdom: Dr Shoeb Suryani; Seaton Park Medical Group, Norham Road, United Kingdom: Dr Richard Coates; Northgate Practice, Anchor Meadow, United Kingdom: Dr Bhupinder Sarai; Rolle Medical Partnership, Claremont Grove, United Kingdom: Dr W Willcock; The Surgery (Bideford way), Cannock, United Kingdom: Dr S Sircar; Library House Surgery, Chorley, United Kingdom: Dr John Cairns; The Elmwood Practice, 1 Dunluce Avenue, United Kingdom: Dr A Gilliand; Dr Bilas (75 Griffiths Drive), Wolverhampton, United Kingdom: Dr Roman Bilas; Penn Manor Medical Practice, Penn, United Kingdom: Dr E Strieder; Rother House Medical Centre, Stratford-Upon-Avon, United Kingdom: Dr Peter Hutchinson; Russell House Surgery, Codsall, United Kingdom: Dr Anne Wakeman; Sandy Lane Surgery, Rugeley, United Kingdom: Dr Michael Stokes; Warders Medical Centre, Tonbridge, United Kingdom: Dr Graham Kirby; Westgate Surgery, Westgate-on-Sea, United Kingdom: Dr Bhaskhar Vishwanathan; Beaconsfield Medical Practice, Brighton, United Kingdom: Dr Nigel Bird; Wish Park Surgery, Hove, United Kingdom: Dr Paul Evans; Cranleigh Surgery, Cranleigh, United Kingdom: Dr M Clark; Cathedral Medical Group, Cawley Road, United Kingdom: Dr John Bisatt; Pound Hill Medical Group, Pound Hill, United Kingdom: Dr Jennifer Litchfield; Park Surgery, Horsham, United Kingdom: Dr E Fisher; Pulborough Medical Group, Pulborough, United Kingdom: Dr Tim Fooks; Worden Medical Centre, Leyland, United Kingdom: Dr Richard Kelsall; Sandbach GPs, Middlewich Road, United Kingdom: Dr Neil Paul; Barton Surgery (Dawlish), Dawlish, United Kingdom: Dr Elizabeth Alborough; Broadway Medical Centre, Broadway, United Kingdom: Dr Michael Aziz; Bellevue Medical Centre, Fleetwood, Fleetwood, United Kingdom: Dr C Ramesh; Bollington Medical Centre, Bollington, United Kingdom: Dr Pete Wilson; Budleigh Salterton Medical Centre, Budleigh Salterton, United Kingdom: Dr Simon Franklin; Cleveleys Group Practice, Cleveleys, United Kingdom: Dr Sue Fairhead; Cossington House Surgery, Canterbury, United Kingdom: Dr Julian Thompson; Creffield Medical Centre, Colchester, United Kingdom: Dr Hasan Chowan; Dr Taylor & Partners, Woodbridge, United Kingdom: Dr Gary Taylor; Ely Bridge Surgery, Ely, United Kingdom: Dr John Wakeling; Firsway Health Centre, Sale, United Kingdom: Dr Dawn Tragen; Harvey Group Practice, St Albans, United Kingdom: Dr Matt Parfitt; The Surgery, Honiton, Honiton, United Kingdom: Dr Claire Seamark; Kiltearn Medical Centre, Nantwich, United Kingdom: Dr Carolyn Paul; Lindum Medical Practice, Cabourne Avenue, United Kingdom: Dr Mark Richardson; Litchdon Medical Centre, Barnstaple, United Kingdom: Dr Angus Jefferies; Magdalen Medical Practice, Norwich, United Kingdom: Dr Helen Sharp; Mattishall Surgery, Mattishall, United Kingdom: Dr Hywel Jones; Mount Farm Surgery, Bury St Edmunds, United Kingdom: Dr Claire Giles; The Fleetwood Health Centre (prev Mountview Surgery), Dock Street, United Kingdom: Dr Matthew Bramley; Nettleham Medical Practice, Nettleham, United Kingdom: Dr Philip Williams; Portmill Surgery, Hitchin, United Kingdom: Dr Jehad Aldegather; Queen Square Medical Services Ltd, Lancaster, United Kingdom: Dr Simon Wetherell; Sedbergh Medical Practice, Sedbergh, United Kingdom: Dr William Lumb; St Leonard’s Practice, Exeter, United Kingdom: Dr Phil Evans; St Stephens Gate Medical Practice, Norwich, United Kingdom: Dr Frances Scouller; Stowhealth Limited, Violet Hill Road, United Kingdom: Dr Neil Macey; The Rise Group Practice, Hornsey Rise, United Kingdom: Dr Stephen Rogers; Victoria Road Surgery, Lowestoft, Oulton Broad, United Kingdom: Dr Yvette Stipp; Woolpit Health Centre, Woolpit, United Kingdom: Dr Richard West; Wymondham Medical Partnership, Wymondham, United Kingdom: Dr Philip Pinney; Ash Trees Surgery, Carnforth, United Kingdom: Dr Paul Wadeson; Crescent Surgery, Kelso Avenue, United Kingdom: Dr John Matthews; Village Practice (Thornton-Cleveleys), Church Road, United Kingdom: Dr Preeti Pandya; Rosebank Medical Practice, Lancaster, United Kingdom: Dr Andrew Gallagher; Brown Clee Surgery, Bridgnorth, United Kingdom: Dr T Railton; Waterfront Medical Centre, Barry, United Kingdom: Dr Emyr Davies; Whinpark Medical Practice, 6 Saughton Road, United Kingdom: Dr Jonathan McClure; Edzell Health Centre, Edzell, United Kingdom: Dr Marc Jacobs; Mauve Practice, North Methven Street, United Kingdom: Dr Claire Hutton; Bridgewater Family Medical Practice, Bridgewater Street, United Kingdom: Dr R Thompson; The Medical Centre, Boston, Old Leake, United Kingdom: Dr Bijoy Sinha; Tasburgh Lodge Surgery, Woodhall Spa, United Kingdom: Dr Keith Butter; Lakeside Healthcare at St Mary's Medical Centre, Stamford, United Kingdom: Dr Susan Barrow; The New Sheepmarket Surgery, Stamford, United Kingdom: Dr Helen Little; Mount Pleasant Health Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom: Dr David Russell; Mill Bank Surgery, Stafford, United Kingdom: Dr Ulka Choudhary; Winyates Health Centre, Redditch, United Kingdom: Dr Ikram Haq; Sherbourne Medical Centre, Leamington Spa, United Kingdom: Dr Paul Ainsworth; Spring Gardens Group Medical Practice, Spring Gardens, United Kingdom: Dr Claire Jones; Framfield House Surgery, Ipswich Road, United Kingdom: Dr Phil Weeks; Marden Medical Practice, Shrewsbury, United Kingdom: Dr Jane Eden; St Thomas Health Centre, Exeter, United Kingdom: Dr Lisa Gibbons; Belvoir Vale Surgery, Bottesford, United Kingdom: Dr Janet Glencross; Bay Medical Group (prev Coastal), Morecambe, United Kingdom: Dr Alison MacLeod; The Montalto Medical Centre, Ballynahinch, United Kingdom: Dr K Poland; Nottinghill Medical Practice, Newtownabbey, United Kingdom: Dr Conor Mulolland; Lisburn Health Centre, Linenhall Street, United Kingdom: Dr A Warke; Ballygomartin Group Practice, Belfast, United Kingdom: Dr Paul Conn; Duncairn Medical Practice, Belfast, United Kingdom: Dr D Burns; Birchwood Medical Practice, Lincoln, United Kingdom: Dr R Smith; Newmarket Medical Practice, Louth, United Kingdom: Dr R Kamath; The Butchery Surgery, Sandwich, United Kingdom: Dr Jonathan Webster; Buckfastleigh Medical Centre, Buckfastleigh, United Kingdom: Dr Ian Hodgins; Ide Lane Surgery, Exeter, United Kingdom: Dr Stephen Vercoe; Kingswood Surgery, Tunbridge Wells, United Kingdom: Dr Paul Roome; Whitstable Medical Practice (Estuary View), Whitstable, United Kingdom: Dr Hilary Pinnock; Downsway Medical Practice, Istead Rise, United Kingdom: Dr Jayesh Patel; Oakenhurst Medical Practice, Simmons Street, United Kingdom: Dr Amar Ali; Crossgar Surgery, Crossgar, United Kingdom: Dr Nigel Hart; Bideford Medical Centre, Bideford, United Kingdom: Dr Richard Davies; Coleridge Medical Centre, Ottery Saint Mary, United Kingdom: Dr Nigel De-Sousa; East Cliffe Practice, Ramsgate, United Kingdom: Dr Catherine Neden; Pool Health Centre, Redruth, United Kingdom: Dr Mark Danielsen; Gravesend Medical Centre, Gravesend, United Kingdom: Dr Purnima Sharma; Steyning Health Centre, Steyning, United Kingdom: Dr Sophia Galloway; Beccles Medical Centre, Beccles, United Kingdom: Dr Charlotte Hawkins; Cromer Group Practice, Cromer, United Kingdom: Dr Raife Oliver; Dr Bouch & Partners, Lowestoft, United Kingdom: Dr Martin Aylward; The Manor Practice, Sutton Coldfield, United Kingdom: Dr Mira Pattni; Grove Surgery (Thetford), Thetford, United Kingdom: Dr Gordon Irvine; Fakenham Medical Practice, Trinity Road, United Kingdom: Dr Shahid Ahmad; Llandaff North Medical Centre, Cardiff, United Kingdom: Dr Catherine Rothwell; Mexborough Health Centre, Mexborough, United Kingdom: Dr Fiaz Choudhary; Attleborough Surgeries, Norfolk, United Kingdom: Dr Sabrina Khalaque; Saffron Group Practice, Leicester, United Kingdom: Dr Stephanie Short; Hobs Moat Medical Centre, Solihull, United Kingdom: Dr Sharon Peters; Albany House Medical Centre, Northampton, United Kingdom: Dr Warwick Coulson; Leicester Terrace Health Centre, Northampton, United Kingdom: Dr Neil Roberts; Danetre Medical Centre, Daventry, United Kingdom: Dr Amy Butler; Wychbury Medical Group, Wollescote, United Kingdom: Dr Steven Coates; Bovey Tracey & Chudleigh Practice, Chudleigh, United Kingdom: Dr Ben Ward; Greensands Medical Practice, Gamlingay, United Kingdom: Dr Daniel Jackson; Stonecroft Medical Centre, Sheffield, United Kingdom: Dr Steve Walton; Dearne Valley Group Practice, Thurnscoe, United Kingdom: Dr Diane Shepherd; Westbank Practice, Starcross, United Kingdom: Dr Toh Wong; Conisbrough Group Practice, Doncaster, United Kingdom: Dr Mark Boon; Brannam Medical Centre, Barnstaple, United Kingdom: Dr Melanie Deacon; St Andrews Surgery, Tonypandy, United Kingdom: Dr David Cornelius; Haltwhistle Medical Group, Haltwhistle, United Kingdom: Dr Sarah Davies; Sele Medical Group, Hexham, United Kingdom: Dr Ben Frankel; Burn Brae Medical Group, Hexham, United Kingdom: Dr Nick Hargreaves; Drs Cloak, Choi and Milligan, The Green, United Kingdom: Dr Henry Choi; Dr Stephenson & Partners, Concord, United Kingdom: Dr Jon Sumner; Rothwell & Desborough Surgery, Rothwell, United Kingdom: Dr Tim Myhill; Oak Street Medical Practice, Norwich, United Kingdom: Dr Salah Estifanos; Greens Norton Medical Centre, Towcester, United Kingdom: Dr Diane Geatch; The Scott Practice, Balby, United Kingdom: Dr Justin Wilkinson; Brunel Medical Practice, Babbacombe, United Kingdom: Dr Richard Veale; Bentley Surgery, Doncaster, United Kingdom: Dr Karen Forshaw; Yealm Medical Centre, Yealmpton, United Kingdom: Dr Rob Hirst; Danes Camp Surgery, Northampton, United Kingdom: Dr Kashif Zaman; Dove Valley Practice, Worsbrough, United Kingdom: Dr Catherine Liley; Walderslade Surgery, Barnsley, United Kingdom: Dr Rebecca Wastling; The Rame Group Practice, Trevol Road, United Kingdom: Dr Paul McEleny; Dorking Medical Practice, Dorking, United Kingdom: Dr Andre Beattie; Carryduff Surgery, Carryduff, United Kingdom: Dr Philip Cooke; King Street Surgery, Lancaster, Lancaster, United Kingdom: Dr Mike Wong; Park Road Surgery, Surrey, United Kingdom: Dr Mark Pugsley; Roundwell Medical Centre, Norwich, United Kingdom: Dr Chaminda Dooldeniya; Barton-on-Sea Surgery, New Milton, United Kingdom: Dr Greg Rogers; Wareham Surgery, Dorset, United Kingdom: Dr James Bennett; Wilton Health Centre, Salisbury, United Kingdom: Dr Polly Jacobs; Leslie Medical Practice, Glenrothes, United Kingdom: Dr Rajesh Muvva; Academy Medical Centre, Angus, United Kingdom: Dr Matthew Adam; Bicester Health Centre, Bicester, United Kingdom: Dr Robin Fox; Windrush Medical Practice, Witney, United Kingdom: Dr Nicolas Thomas; The White Horse Medical Practice, Volunteer Way, United Kingdom: Dr Simon Cartwright; Westongrove PMS Partnership, Aston Clinton, United Kingdom: Dr Rory Reed; Park Terrace Medical Practice, Stirling, United Kingdom: Dr Simon Randfield; The Broadshires Health Centre, Carterton, United Kingdom: Dr Christine A'Court; Kirkcaldy Health Centre, Whyteman's Brae, United Kingdom: Dr Ann Flynn; Rothes Medical Practice, Glamis Centre, United Kingdom: Dr Andrew Halpin; The Medical Centre, Redditch, Crabbs Cross, United Kingdom: Dr Shoeb Suryani; Clarence Medical Practice, Rhyl, United Kingdom: Dr Simon Dobson; Plas Menai Surgery, Conway, United Kingdom: Dr Louise Lomax; Plas Y Bryn Surgery, Wrexham, United Kingdom: Dr Minnal Nadaph; Tryst Medical Centre, Stenhousemuir, United Kingdom: Dr Iain Munro; Frome Valley Medical Centre, Frampton Cotterill, United Kingdom: Dr Jane Goram; Kingswood Health Centre, Bristol, United Kingdom: Dr Helen Stoddart; Charlotte Keel Health Centre, Bristol, United Kingdom: Dr Phil Simmons; Llanedeyrn Health Centre, Llanedeyrn, United Kingdom: Dr John Shewring; Chawton Park Surgery, Alton, United Kingdom: Dr Emma Bowen-Simpkins; Park and St Francis Surgery, Valley Park, United Kingdom: Dr Mark Rickenbach; Salisbury Medical Practice, Fountain Way, United Kingdom: Dr Polly Jacobs.

Australia

Lismore Base Hospital, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia: Adam Blenkhorn and Harry Gibbs and Leverne Hesketh and Janice Boys and Charmaine Morahan and Tracey Mackney; Launceston General Hospital, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia: Bhuwanendu Singh and Carol Singh and Monica Campo and Rosemary Beveridge and Laurie McKeon and Elizabeth Vardon; Pendlebury Research, Cardiff, New South Wales, Australia: Lyne Parsons and Lesley Carlton and Penny Astridge and Geoffrey Oldfield; The Northern Hospital, Epping, Victoria, Australia: It Meng Tsay and Vicki Lawlor and Chelsea Webster and Damien Cresp and William van Gaal and Elizabeth Buckley and Rinku Rayoo and Mary Park and Uwais Mohamed and Naveen Sharma and Vivek Muhta and Elizabeth Vardon and Amie Cho; The Canberra Hospital, Garran, Austl. Cap. Terr., Australia: Emily Wilford and Katherine Johnson and Kate Hayes and Natasha Thomas and Renee Eslick and Walter Abhayaratna and Mehdi Eskandari and Ben Jacobson; Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia: Vicki OMay and Philip Thomson and Nathan Dwyer and Catherine McIntosh and Lynette Reid and Teresa Grabek and Karen Patching and Andrew Black and Ben Costello and Rachel Lloyd and George Lukas and Joseph Amin; Ashford Cardiac Clinic, Ashford, South Australia, Australia: Ron Lehman and Cameron Singleton and Hazel Morrison and Tanya Patching and Mandy Lehman and Sam Lehman; Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Bankstown, New South Wales, Australia: Marika Seremetkoska and Jo-Dee Myers and Deirdre Upton and Jens Kilian and Alla Waldman and Changjie Song and Joanna Ramachenderan; Nepean Hospital, Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia: Michael Fitzpatrick and Michele MacKenzie and Lisa Barry and David Coulshed and George Touma and Inaam Ullah; Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia: Andrei Catanchin and Michelle Bonner and Claire Batta and Mary Vorster and Vincent Paul and Nikola Stoyanov and Samantha Thompson; Core Research Group, Milton, Queensland, Australia: Aurelia Connelly and David Colquhoun and Lara Petelin and Dylan Barnes and Nigel Appleby and Tara Kinnane and Hilary Morrison and Antonio Ferreira-Jardim and Bojana Petrovic; Macquarie University Hospital, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia: Lisa Wallis and Helena Setio and Anil Aggarwala and Kiran Swaraj and Imran Kassam and Hosen Kiat; Balwyn Consulting Suites, Epping, Victoria, Australia: David Eccleston and Karen Patching; Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia: Maria Plotz and John French and Craig Juergens and Suzanne Raynes and Natalia Sequalino and Kelsey O'Brien and Sally-Anne Hoddy and Tuan Nguyen and Christian Mussap and Hany Dimitri and Krishna Kadappu and Dominic Leung and Alexandra Croucher; SA Heart, Ashford, South Australia, Australia: Jessie Palmer and Jean Tarrant and Leon Zimmett and Tanya Patching and Marilyn Dolman and Bronte Ayres; The Avenue Cardiovascular Centre, Dandenong, Victoria, Australia: Peter Blombery and Helen Rashad and Claire McCarthy; Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Victoria, Australia: Thanh Phan and Kitty Wong and Lauren Sanders; Gosford Hospital, Gosford, New South Wales, Australia: Bets Conway and James Rogers and Jonathan Sturm and Margaret Webb and Veronica Zenteno and David Crimmins and Anna Schutz and Susanne Rhodes; Heart Care Victoria - Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia: Karen Patching and David O'Donnell; Pitt Town Family Practice, Pitt Town, New South Wales, Australia: Sang Cheol Bae; The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Harry Gibbs and Vathy Nagalingam; Redcliffe Hospital, Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia: Megan Ratcliffe and Maree Duroux and Patrick Carroll and Megan Ratcliffe and Samantha Shone and Mayank H Modi and Richard Geraghty; Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia: Greg Starmer and Shane Preston and Michelle Gosley and Sue Richmond and Sue Dixon and Steven Sutcliffe; Lyell McEwin Hospital, Elizabeth Vale, South Australia, Australia: Margaret Arstall and Katrina Macmillan and Purendra Pati and Jann Parkinson and Jane Rose; St George Hospital, Kogarah, New South Wales, Australia: Maurits Binnekamp and Jennifer Brimley and Ellie Watson and Prakriti Shrestha and Megan Higgs; Cardiac Diagnostic Centre, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia: Stephen Mackay and Miyar Prathap Hegde and Taufik Fetahovic and Astin Lee and Martin Walker and Janene Gibbs.

Canada

Hamilton General Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: John Eikelboom and Sam Schulman and Marlene Robinson; Oxford AIM Clinic, London, Ontario, Canada: Robert Luton and Shannen Douglass and Fraser Gibson and Krystine Cooper; Brampton Research Associates, Brampton, Ontario, Canada: Milan Gupta and Ana Maria Sindilar and Lidia Lepore and Lekraj Nimraj and Mitra Mohammadi and Ranjit Kahlon; Cambridge Cardiac Care Centre, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada: Amritanshu Shekhar Pandey and Michelle Pandey and Linda Snell; Surrey Memorial Hospital, Surrey, British Columbia, Canada: Stephen Cheung and Jan Kornder and Lynn Breakwell and Tracy Cleveland and Jordana Largy and Alayna Ewert and Shannon Wong; Leader, Rolland, Ajax, Ontario, Canada: Rolland Leader and Loris Aro; Dr Philippe Beaudry, Burlington, Ontario, Canada: Philippe Beaudry and Kathryn Beaudry and Judy Dunnigan; Dr Philippe Beaudry, Montréal, Quebec, Canada: Celine Bergeron; Dr Philippe Beaudry, Downsview, Ontario, Canada: Gordhan Jethoo; CHUS - Hôpital Fleurimont, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada: Félix Ayala-Paredes and Caroline Lamoureux and Suzanne Maltais and Sonia Nadeau-Lapointe and Veronique Dagenais and Marie-Claude Grenier and Claude Jean; JBN Medical Diagnostic Services Inc., Burlington, Ontario, Canada: Joseph Berlingieri and Fern Petrie; JBN Medical Diagnostic Services Inc., Windsor, Ontario, Canada: Stephen Lewis and Chris MacRae; Alder Medical Centre, Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada: John Heath and Linette Scott and Jane Drown; Centre de santé et de services sociaux Champlain-Charles-Le Moyne, Greenfield Park, Quebec, Canada: Sandrine Spearson and Emilie Douville and Germain Poirier and Karine Primeau and Isabelle Neas and Julie Gaudreault; The Medical Arts Health Research Group, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada: Patricia Roberts and The Medical Arts Health Research Group, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada: Miranda du Preez and Anna Kubanska and Judy Vicic and Nathaly Reynoso; The Medical Arts Health Research Group, Powell River, British Columbia, Canada: Patti Roberts; Centre Intégré Universitaire de Santé et de Services Sociaux du Nord-de-l’Île-de-Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada: Reginald Nadeau and Georgeta Sas and Zahra Djaidani and Sadia Daheb; London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada: Donald Farquhar and Richard Kim and George Dresser and Rita Moor and Heather Vosper and Lara Whatmore and Natalie Crown; Dhillon, Ripple, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada: Ripple Dhillon and Julie Bigcanoe and Nanci Bignell; University of Alberta Hospital-SCC/WCM, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Tomasz Hruczkowski and Maria Raines; The Medical Arts Health Research Group, Powell River, British Columbia, Canada: Timothy Barkowski and Bradley Schweitzer and Stephen Burns and Sally Watson and Patti Roberts; Regina General Hospital, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada: Payam Dehghani and Laurie Ferleyko Cheryl Altwasser and Sheila Kelly; Regina General Hospital, Marieville, Quebec, Canada: Andrea Lavoie and William Semchuk; Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Debbie Wright and Ratika Parkash and Lisa Carroll and Ann Fearon; James Cha, MD, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada: Rebecca Otis and James Cha and Judy Otis and Elizabeth Burke; CHUM Hôtel-Dieu, Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Benoit Coutu and Denise Fournier and Julie Fleury and Isabelle Denis; Nova Scotia Health Authority, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada: Jeanie MacIsaac and Kathleen Hines and Annette Wood and Christine Hines and Paul MacDonald and Joy Howard; First Line Medical Services Ltd., St John's, Newfoundland, Canada: Wayne Gulliver and Brian Ramjattan and Bonnie Clarke and Teri Trahey; Fraser Clinical Trials Inc., New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada: Leanne Kwan and Dennis Rupka and Katherine Haveman; Fraser Clinical Trials Inc., New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada: Jorge Bonet and Michael Kammermayer and Jacquie Stevenson; Dr Saul Vizel Cardiac Research Office, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada: Saul Vizel and Beverley Fox; St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Paul Angaran and Kamran Ahmad and Victoria Korley and Arnold Pinter and Paul Dorian and Iqwal Mangat and Theresa Aves; Medicine Professional Corporation, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada: Sameh Fikry and Sameh Fikry and Wagdy Basily and Ana Maria Jackson.

Egypt

Private Clinic, Giza, Egypt: Annie Ohanissian and Hany Ragy; Private Clinic, Cairo, Egypt: Ahmed Mowafy; Private Clinic, Cairo, Egypt: Azza Katta; Private Clinic, Cairo, Egypt: Mazen Tawfik; Private Clinic, Egypt: Eman Zaatout and Moustafa Nawar; International Cardiac Center - I.C.C., Egypt: Ahmed Soliman and Mohamed Sobhy; Private Clinic, Egypt: Seif Kamal Abou Seif; Private Clinic, Egypt: Tarek Khairy; Private Clinic, Egypt: Ahmed Abd El-Aziz and Michael Sobhy; Private Clinic, Egypt: Nasser Taha; Private Clinic, Egypt: Ashraf Reda and Nevein Sami and Mohamed Reda; Private Clinic, Egypt: Atef Elbahry; Om Al Qura Cardiac Center, Egypt: Mohamed Setiha and Sameh Samir and Hanan Salem; Private Clinic, Egypt: Mohamed Gamal El Din; Cardiotech for Medical Care, Egypt: Magdi Elkhadem and Ali Mohsen; Private Clinic, Egypt: Adel El-Etreby.

South Africa

Kettles, DI, East London, South Africa: Gerda Du Plessis and Debbie Browne and David Kettles and Penny Jackson; Coronary Care Unit, Durban, South Africa: Junaid Bayat; Into Research, Pretoria, South Africa: Craig Phillip Franklin and Heidi Siebert and Petronella Nagel and Maria Booysen; Dr AR Horak Private Practice, Cape Town, South Africa: Elwyn Lloyd and Adrian Horak and Lindy Henley; Kelfkens, Y, Potchefstroom, South Africa: Ynez Kelfkens; Garda, RA, Johannesburg, South Africa: Soraya Cassimjee and Riaz Garda and Loice Mavhusa; Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital Haematology Department, Johannesburg, South Africa: Barry Jacobson and Judy Sasto and Gladys Conway and Leonie Smith and Claire Cannon and Jeannie Marks; Dr Dawood, Mohamed and Pillay, Cape Town, South Africa: Thayabran Pillay and Margo Botha; Syzygy Clinical Research Services, Pretoria, South Africa: Michele Guerra and Lelanie van Zyl and Anna-Marie Stapelberg and Deidre Oosthuizen; Clinical Projects Research SA (PTY) LTD, Worcester, South Africa: Louis van Zyl and Judy Anne Finlaison and Marshall Heradien and Tania Ellis and Francois van Zyl; Universitas Hospital Cardiology Research, Bloemfontein, South Africa: Lorinda de Meyer and Hendrik Theron and Ellen Makotoko and Marinda Karsten and Andonia Page; Murray, AN, Cape Town, South Africa: Andrew Murray and Heather Christie and Cecilia Boshoff; Winelands Medical Research Centre, Stellenbosch, South Africa: Rikus Louw and Garath Tarr and Annalie Skein; Greyling, D, Cape Town, South Africa: Roelof Diederichs and Deon Greyling; Mntla, PS, Pretoria, South Africa: Pindile Mntla and Tiisetso Tau and Lillian Rikhotso; Ismail, SM, Cape Town, South Africa: Anna Isaacs and Siddique Ismail and Aziza Davids and Mariette Pelser and Sipho Hlengwa; Ahmed, FA, Isipingo Rail, South Africa: Fayzal Ahmed and Charmaine Chami; Dr JM Engelbrecht Practice, Somerset West, South Africa: Johannes Engelbrecht and Marlene Mostert and Wilhelmina Pretorius; Ramdass, AS, Durban, South Africa: Andrew Ramdass and Muhammed Moosa and Indhranie Naidoo; Maharajh, S, Assagay, South Africa: Shambu Maharajh and Shambu Maharajh; Limaro Research, Bloemfontein, South Africa: Elizabeth Oosthuysen and Wessel Oosthuysen and Cornel Bester; MERC - Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa: Shireen Safodien and Mishka Salie and Farhaad Shaik and Mohammed Moosa and Rosemary Matthews and Rehana Loghdey; Ueckermann, V, Pretoria, South Africa: Andre Ueckermann and Veronica Ueckermann.

United Arab Emirates

Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: Irfan Maqsood and Wael Al Mahmeed; Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: Maher Makdad and Abdullah Al Naeemi; Gulf Diagnostic Center Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: Ralph Manzano and Karen Magdaluyo and Steve Teves and Ghazi Yousef; Dubai Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates: Azbin Abdul and Nooshin Bazargani; Rashid Governmental Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates: Amna Al Mulla and Munther AlOmairi; Zulekha Hospital LLC, Dubai, United Arab Emirates: Rajan Maruthanayagam and Abdul Rehman and Preetha Haridas; Zulekha Hospital, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: Shereef El Bardisy and Sharmila Jadhav and Preetha Haridas and Rupesh Singh; Al Qassimi Hospital, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: Ahmed Naguib; Kuwait Hospital, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: Rehab Mohamed and Mohamed Ibrahim; Fujairah Hospital, Fujairah, United Arab Emirates: Jameelah Dominguez and Amrish Agrawal; RAK Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates: Mukesh Nathani; Gulf Medical University Hospital, Ajman, United Arab Emirates: Nidhi Sharma and Mohammed Thanzeel and Rahul Sharma and Ehab M. Esheiba; Ibrahim Bin Hamad Obaidullah Hospital, Ras-Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates: Adel Wassef; Kalba Hospital, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates: Rajeev Gupta.

United States

Cotton-O'Neil Clinical Research Center, Topeka, Kansas, United States: Michael Cox and Erin Malone; Medical Associates of North Georgia, Canton, Georgia, United States: Melanie Eley and April Brown and Scott Beach and Cheryl Verdi; FirstHealth of the Carolinas, Inc., Pinehurst, North Carolina, United States: Tim Richardson and Anne Dickerson and Valerie Palumbo and Peter Duffy and Shauna Eggertson and Pamela Mason; Southeast Clinical Research, LLC, Jacksonville, Florida, United States: Elizabeth Burkett and Tammy Parrott and Karen Johnson and Stephen Falkowski; Montefiore Medical Center PRIME, Lake Success, New York, United States: Sandy Congal and Kevin Ferrick and Ronald Zolty and Auris Browne; MCA Research, Houston, Texas, United States: Celine Garcia and Miguel Franco and Paula Gentry and Melialoha Bartlett; Bryan Heart, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States: Andrew Merliss and Rose Saalfeld and Cheryl Orosco and W.Michael Kutayli and Nicci Thompson; Truman Medical Centers, Inc., Kansas City, Missouri, United States: Paramdeep Baweja and Daniel Pauly and Annette Quick and M. Javed Ashraf and Mickie Keeling; Gwinnett Hospital System, Inc., Lawrenceville, Georgia, United States: Niraj Sharma and Jowanna Kerr and Marsha Headlee; Cardiology Consultants, Daytona Beach, Florida, United States: Terry Purcell and Jennifer Langdon and Pamela Jones and Vance Wilson; Jean Brown Research, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States: Heather Theobald and Kim Smith and Scott West and Allison Jones and Stephen Miller and Lorlie Evans; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States: Patricia Knowles and Mark Alberts; Central New Jersey Cardiology, South Plainfield, New Jersey, United States: Edwin Blumberg and Susan Paserchia; WellSpan Cardiology, Ephrata, Pennsylvania, United States: Roddy Canosa and Elise Hartranft and Susan Felpel and Sarah Jasinski; Heart Specialists of Central Jersey, Freehold, New Jersey, United States: Susan Karl and Ted Gutowski; Community Health Care, Inc., Canal Fulton, Ohio, United States: Tammy Lincoln and Butcher Stephanie and Paula Shaw and Rodney Ison; Cardiology Consultants LLP, Houston, Texas, United States: Jorge Garcia and Edward Massin and Teresa Hicks; Coast Cardiovascular Consultants, PLLC, Biloxi, Mississippi, United States: Sherry Raziano and Paul Mullen; DM Clinical Research, Edison, New Jersey, United States: Fatema Hakimi and Debra Merritt and Abbas Haideri and Howard Noveck; Baptist Heart Specialists, Jacksonville Beach, Florida, United States: Jill DePauw and Pamela Rama and Doran Cassidy; T & R Clinic, Halton City, Texas, United States: Melanie Bentley and Rajneesh Reddy; The Valley Hospital, Fairlawn, New Jersey, United States: Jin Ah Lee and Marcus Williams; University of California Davis Health System, Sacramento, California, United States: Daniel Nishijima and Laura Jones and Toni Harbour and Ben Mooso and Deborah Diercks and Allyson Sage and Tirath Sanghera and Michaela Canova; Tulane University Heart & Vascular Institute, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States: Nana Asafu-Adjaye and Suzanne Bowers and Gholam Ali and Patrice Delafontaine and Keith Ferdinand; City Cardiology Associates, Akron, Ohio, United States: Nicole Pickelsimer and Ihsan Haque; Jamaica Hospital Medical Center, Jamaica, New York, United States: Tazrin Tripti and Janaya Raynor and Genna Pearl and Kelly Cervellione and Robert Mendelson; University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, Texas, United States: Sridevi Pitta and Benji Hawkins and Michael Lay and Kent Davis and Debbie Fielder and Christopher Herrick and Jay Shoemaker; Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States: Daniel Theodoro and Daniel Theodoro and Kaharu Sumino and Vanetta Worthy and Anne Thatcher and Lynn Henson and Kelly Ball and Catharine Richard and Jessica Peterson and Gregory Ewald; Cardiovascular Research Center of Knoxville, Atlanta, Georgia, United States: Candy Robertson and Michelle Parker and Lisa Treasure and Joseph Minardo and Charles Treasure; SC Nephrology & Hypertension Center, Inc., Orangeburg, South Carolina, United States: Moustafa Moustafa and Samuel Emelife; Crystal Coast Family Practice, P.A., Morehead City, North Carolina, United States: Cas Cader and Sommer Morton; Medication Management, LLC, Greensboro, North Carolina, United States: Katie Jenkins and Lauren Talton and Walter Pharr and Bryan Bray and Amy Riddle and Jill Woody; Northwell Health, LLC, Lake Success, New York, United States: Alisha Oropallo and Farisha Baksh and Sally Kaplan; George E. Platt, M.D., Green Cove Springs, Florida, United States: Margaret Thorne and Jeremy Love and George Platt and Kimberlee Harris; Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia, United States: Peggy Best and Celestine Williams and Jaspal Gujral; AAHSRI, Annapolis, Maryland, United States: Kathleen Gray and James Welker and Kristine Wood; Kentucky Lung Clinic, PSC, Hazard, Kentucky, United States: Lori Akers and Margie Duff-Coots and Firas Koura.

Additional Contributions: We thank the physicians, nurses, and patients involved in the GARFIELD-AF registry. Editorial support was provided by Rae Hobbs, BSc (Thrombosis Research Institute, London, England). She was not compensated for her contribution.

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