Enormous technical progress, in essence a technical revolution, at the end of the 20th century, has introduced a new era in medicine. Molecular biology has changed our understanding of physiological and pathological processes. Characterization of the human genome has made it possible to search for specific genes of diseases. In the 21st century, it is likely that all susceptibility loci and genes responsible for diseases will be detected. Genetic counseling, which is already successfully used in several disorders, may be available for all congenital diseases.
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