In Africa, scarification has served as an important element of the culture of different groups. Scarification involves placing superficial incisions on the skin using stones, glass, knives, or other tools to create meaningful pictures, words, or designs. This permanent body modification can communicate a plethora of cultural expressions. From Ethiopia to Papua New Guinea, scarification produces scars of different sizes, shapes, and positions to show clan identity, status within a community, passage into adulthood, or spiritual significance.
Jorge Roman. African Scarification. JAMA Dermatol. 2016;152(12):1353. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2016.0086