Is there an association between use of medications and the development of bullous pemphigoid?
In this systematic review and meta-analysis of 13 case-control studies, 1 cohort study, and 1 randomized clinical trial with 285 884 participants, there was a significant association of the development of bullous pemphigoid with the prescribed use of aldosterone antagonists, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, anticholinergics, and dopaminergic medications.
The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that medications should be prescribed judiciously, particularly in high-risk patients who are elderly and have disabling neurologic disorders.
The association between the use of medications and the development of bullous pemphigoid (BP) is unclear.
To assess the associations between previous exposure to certain medications and BP.
For this systematic review and meta-analysis, PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase were searched for relevant studies from inception to February 20, 2020.
Case-control or cohort studies and randomized clinical trials that examined the odds or risk of BP in patients with previous medication use were included. No geographic or language limitations were imposed.
Data Extraction and Synthesis
The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guideline was followed. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate the risk of bias of included observational studies; Cochrane Collaboration’s tool was used for randomized clinical trials. Aggregate data were used to conduct a random-effects model meta-analysis if the included studies were sufficiently homogenous. Subgroup analyses were performed for use of various medications of the same category.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Odds ratio (OR), hazard ratio, and risk ratio of bullous pemphigoid in association with medication use.
This meta-analysis included 13 case-control studies, 1 cohort study, and 1 randomized clinical trial with a total of 285 884 participants. The meta-analysis of case-control studies showed a significant association of BP with previous use of aldosterone antagonists (pooled OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.28-2.40), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (pooled OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.55-2.38), anticholinergics (pooled OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.54-6.33), and dopaminergic medications (pooled OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34-3.05). One cohort study found an increased risk of BP among patients receiving dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (hazard ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.16-4.88; P = .02). One trial found a higher occurrence of BP in patients with diabetes receiving linagliptin (0.2% in diabetes group vs 0% in the placebo group).
Conclusions and Relevance
The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that aldosterone antagonists, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, anticholinergics, and dopaminergic medications are associated with BP. These medications should be judiciously prescribed, particularly in high-risk patients who are elderly and have disabling neurologic disorders.
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Liu S, Chen W, Chi C. Association Between Medication Use and Bullous Pemphigoid: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol. Published online June 17, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2020.1587
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