[Skip to Navigation]
Views 302
Citations 0
July 14, 2021

Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen–4 Haploinsufficiency Cutaneous Manifestations

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Dermatology, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine
JAMA Dermatol. Published online July 14, 2021. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2021.2317

Primary immunodeficiency syndromes are a group of genetic disorders that are characterized by aberrant innate and adaptive immune responses.1 Patients are at increased risk of developing recurrent infections, allergies, autoimmune diseases, and, in some instances, cancers.2 The subtle nature of clinical symptoms often makes them overlooked and delays diagnosis. Skin and hair conditions are increasingly recognized as components of these syndromes. We describe a patient with alopecia areata (AA) and seemingly unconnected comorbidities who was ultimately received a diagnosis of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen−4 (CTLA-4) haploinsufficiency.

Limit 200 characters
Limit 25 characters
Conflicts of Interest Disclosure

Identify all potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to your comment.

Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.

Err on the side of full disclosure.

If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below. The information will be posted with your response.

Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details.

Limit 140 characters
Limit 3600 characters or approximately 600 words