Degenerative cerebral diseases affecting humans and other animals have been observed for many years. A contagious group of these diseases in vertebrates is known as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In the mid-1980s, an epidemic of one of these diseases, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), was recognized in Britain. Transmission to humans was suspected, and subsequently a more virulent form of the disease was recognized in cattle and humans. This has raised considerable public concern about the safety of bovine-derived products and caused a dramatic reduction in consumption of these products. The frequency of cosmetic bovine collagen injections has decreased recently in Britain and elsewhere in Europe.1
Carruthers J, Carruthers A. Mad Cows, Prions, and Wrinkles. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138(5):667–670. doi:10.1001/archderm.138.5.667
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