The problem of the cultivation of a virulent Spirochaeta pallida is still in a state of utmost confusion. Erich Hoffmann,1 with whom Schaudinn2 discovered Spirochaeta pallida in 1905, recently concluded that "The problem of a simple and reliable culture method remains to be solved." He also expressed the opinion that a differentiation of Spirochaeta pallida from morphologically similar types (which he offered to designate as "Spirochaeta pseudopallida") demands further study.
Volpino and Fontana,3 as early as 1906, were the first to attempt to cultivate the organism. The literature nevertheless remained small and inconclusive, as a method devised by one worker almost invariably fails in the hands of another. The only proof for the existence of Spirochaeta pallida in a certain culture is a successful transfer of a pure culture to a susceptible host and its repetition. A few investigators claim with their culture materials to have reproduced
GAMMEL JA, ECKER EE. THE VIRULENCE OF SPIROCHAETA PALLIDA IN CULTURE. Arch Derm Syphilol. 1931;23(3):439–444. doi:10.1001/archderm.1931.03880210032003
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