After the synthesis of arsphenamine by Ehrlich and Bertheim1 and its successful introduction by Ehrlich and Hata2 in the therapy of spirillosis and by Wechselmann3 and Uhlenhuth and Mulzer4 in the treatment of syphilis, a considerable attempt has been made to ascertain the mode of action of the arsphenamines. Ehrlich and Hata2 stated that arsphenamine exerted no direct action in the test tube on spirochetes of relapsing fever. Plaut,5 Truffi and Sabbia6 and Bronfenbrenner and Noguchi7 were not able to kill Spirochaeta pallida in the test tube with high concentrations of arsphenamine. Ehrlich and Bertheim1 assumed that the active principle was a product of the breaking down of arsphenamine, the "arsenoxide." Voegtlin and Smith8 produced convincing evidence that the action of the various arsphenamines depends on their conversion into one type, the trivalent oxides with the structure R-AsO, and
GRUHZIT OM, Lindsay WD, Hendricks G, Dodd MC. MAPHARSEN ("ARSENOXIDE") IN THE THERAPY OF EXPERIMENTAL SYPHILIS AND TRYPANOSOMIASIS. Arch Derm Syphilol. 1935;32(6):848–867. doi:10.1001/archderm.1935.01470060013002
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