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Article
April 1942

CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS (ORIENTAL SORE) IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADAA SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE AND REPORT OF FOUR CASES

Arch Derm Syphilol. 1942;45(4):676-684. doi:10.1001/archderm.1942.01500100037003
Abstract

Since the classic paper of Wright,1 in which was delineated for the first time the precise morphologic picture of Leishmania tropica, there have been 24 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported in the United States and Canada. None of these is claimed to be autochthonous, all having been imported from Iraq, Iran, Armenia, Palestine, Syria, Italy or India.

There are three forms of leishmaniasis: (a) visceral (kala-azar), (b) mucocutaneous, or American,2 and (c) cutaneous. This report is concerned only with the form classified as cutaneous.

This disease is rife in Asia Minor and in the southern Mediterranean countries. Baghdad, Iraq, where it is practically universal, is the largest endemic center in the world.3 Other endemic centers are: Aleppo, Syria; Crete; Cyprus; Delhi, India; Lahore, India; Kandahar, Afghanistan, and Jericho, Palestine. As a result, synonymous local terms, such as "Baghdad button," "Aleppo boil" and "Lahore sore," have come into

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