American leishmaniasis has received scant attention in the literature of the United States, most of the reports having originated from South America, particularly Brazil. While up to 1943 approximately 30 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (oriental sore) had been reported from the United States and Canada (1), none of which (with 1 possible exception1c) were autochthonous, only 3 cases of American, or mucocutaneous, leishmaniasis had been recorded as occurring in the United States, 1 of which was presumably autochthonous.
McEwen2 in 1914 published the first case, and, although he called the disease oriental sore, he was undoubtedly dealing with American leishmaniasis. The patient acquired the lesion while traveling in South America. In contradistinction to cutaneous leishmaniasis, the lesion proved resistant to therapy. Furthermore, differentiation between oriental sore and American leishmaniasis had not as yet been made.
Wile,3 during a
STEWART CD, PILCHER JF. AMERICAN LEISHMANIASIS: REPORT OF AN AUTOCHTHONOUS CASE. Arch Derm Syphilol. 1945;51(2):124–128. doi:10.1001/archderm.1945.01510200048008
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