JEGHERS1 stated that according to Edwards and Duntley the normal color of the skin is due to (1) the light reflection properties of its structure plus the cutaneous pigments, (2) melanin, (3) melanoid, (4) carotene and (5) hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin.
Occupational exposures which produce disturbances in these five color factors of the skin may result in occupational pigmentary changes. Occupational pigmentation of the skin may consist of (1) an excess of melanin and melanoid, (2) deposits of metallic substances in the skin (tattooing) and (3) dyeing of the skin either from external application of the dye or deposition of the dye in the skin after ingestion.
The occupational causes of excessive formation of pigment in the skin are (1) excessive exposure to sunlight or actinic rays, (2) exposure to coal tar (the heavy coal tar distillates and coal tar pitch), (3) exposure to crude petroleum and residues
SCHWARTZ L. OCCUPATIONAL PIGMENTARY CHANGES IN THE SKIN. Arch Derm Syphilol. 1947;56(5):592–600. doi:10.1001/archderm.1947.01520110038006
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