LEISHMANIASIS is usually divided into two main groups according to the organs primarily involved, namely, visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar, is caused by a protozoan named Leishmania donovani after its discoverers.
Leishmaniasis affecting the skin is again subdivided into the Old World, or cutaneous, leishmaniasis and the American, or mucocutaneous, leishmaniasis. The Old World leishmaniasis has been given a variety of names, the best-known of which are oriental sore, Dehli button, Aleppo boil and Biskra button. It is endemic in parts of Europe (Sicily, Greece, France, and Spain), Asia (Turkey, Syria, Palestine, Arabia, Persia, Turkestan, India, and China), and Africa (northern part, Abyssinia, and French Congo).
The initial lesion is a papule, often resembling an insect bite. Later an elevated buttonlike nodule of dusky-red color forms. Crusting with or without ulceration develops. The end-result is a depressed radiating scar, making it possible to diagnose leishmaniasis decades after the acute stage. Lesions are often single
FASAL P, GRADOW A. INTRADERMAL LEISHMANIN TEST (MONTENEGRO TEST) IN DIAGNOSIS OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS: Report of a Case of Chiclero Ulcer Diagnosed in California. AMA Arch Derm Syphilol. 1951;64(4):487–494. doi:10.1001/archderm.1951.01570100104016
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