A GROUP of similar but unfamiliar eruptions were noted among soldiers and their dependents in Tokyo. Japanese personnel identified some of the lesions as ``buyo bites," and these were subsequently identified as inflicted by a species of Simulium or black flies.
Stokes1 (1914) wrote a complete article with a comprehensive bibliography on the early reactions to these insects. Winkler2 recently observed severe erythematous and edematous reactions persisting for one week in patients in Germany. Our patients also showed these typical early reactions, but many eruptions persisted from 3 to 16 months and demonstrated several types of dermatoses.
Of 600 known species of black flies, 15 are found in Japan.3 One of the commonest species is the same Simulium venustum Say reported by Stokes.1 Sasa3 states the other common types are Simulium japonicum Matsumura and Simulium nipponese (Shiraki). Stone* states that the specimens collected