Cort (1928) first demonstrated that certain fresh-water Schistosoma cercariae were able to penetrate the skin of man and cause a dermatitis characterized by papular eruptions. This phenomenon is commonly known as "swimmer's itch." Penner (1942 and 1950) was the first to recognize and name marine dermatitis-producing Schistosoma cercariae. The cercarial stage of Austrobilharzia littorinalinae (Penner, 1950), A. terrigalensis Johnston, 1917, A. variglandis (Miller and Northup, 1926), Ornithobilharzia conaliculata (Rudolphi, 1819) and Gigantobilharzia huttoni (Leigh, 1953) occurs in marine waters and is known to produce schistosoma dermatitis.
Sams (1949) records "seabather's eruption" (Figs. 1 and 2) as an acute form of dermatitis resulting shortly after people bathe in the ocean along the lower east coast of Florida. Some bathers experience a slight itching sensation while still in the water, but in most cases discomfort is not noticed until after leaving the water. Inflammatory papules usually appear within a few hours after
ROBERT F. HUTTON. Marine DermatosisNotes on "Seabather's Eruption" with Creseis Acicula Rang (Mollusca: Pteropoda) as the Cause of a Particular Type of Sea Sting Along the West Coast of Florida. Arch Dermatol. 1960;82(6):951–956. doi:10.1001/archderm.1960.01580060107017