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Doctor Ancel submitted this thesis as part of his requirements for a doctorate in medicine at the School of Medicine in Paris, in 1868. The faculty at that time included Raynaud, Broca, Charcot, and Bazin. This thesis, which has been ignored in modern literature, is a tribute to the knowledge of the nails during that era and to the standards required for a doctorate. The text is French with some detailed description in Latin; unfortunately there are no illustrations.
After an initial chapter on the anatomy and physiology of the nails, the author goes directly to the pathologic changes of these skin appendages. At the suggestion of his learned Professor of Dermatology, Doctor Bazin, the presentation is divided into Alterations of External Cause, Alterations of Internal Cause, and Deformities, each with subheadings.
Among the changes due to external causes, contusions, wounds, burns, foreign bodies, and hematomas are discussed. He dwells
Pardo-Castello V. The Nails: Their Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology. Arch Dermatol. 1963;87(1):138. doi:10.1001/archderm.1963.01590130144023
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