Intradermal testing was carried out on 22 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using homologous leukocytes, nucleoprotein, histone, and deoxyribonucleic acid. Ten patients with positive reactions to DNA had acute lupus and lupus nephritis confirmed by biopsy. Sera from nine of ten of these patients were tested for antinuclear factors (ANF) by the immunofluorescent technique, and the shaggy and homogeneous patterns were exhibited by all.
Jones HE, Derbes VJ, Gum OB, Azoury FJ. Skin Tests With Nuclear Factors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Arch Dermatol. 1967;95(6):559–564. doi:10.1001/archderm.1967.01600360005001
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