It has been suggested that bacteria and yeasts may play a role in familial benign chronic pemphigus. In an attempt to reevaluate the participation of microorganisms in this condition, bacterial and fungal cultures were performed in four patients. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus was present in the lesions. In two patients intact bullae yielded this organism in pure culture. In one patient a pure culture of S aureus was obtained from a broken bulla. Other ruptured bullae yielded S aureus in addition to members of the normal skin flora. Gram-positive cocci were localized also within bullae in sections of the skin. Phage typing showed that two of the staphylococcal isolates were lysed by phages 71, 75, and 85. Candida albicans could not be isolated from lesions of any of these patients.