It has been only 6 years since the complementary DNA encoding human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was first cloned and characterized.1 In the short time that has passed since this achievement, recombinant human GM-CSF protein has been produced on a large scale using current gene expression technology and is being used widely in the therapy of a broad range of disorders sharing the common feature of hematopoietic failure.2,3 Whether this process is iatrogenically induced during aggressive cytotoxic chemotherapy for cancer or prior to bone marrow transplantation, or emerges as a result of diseases such as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or the myelodysplastic syndrome, parenteral administration of GM-CSF and other hematopoietic growth factors has been shown to be useful in the generation of phenotypically and functionally mature leukocytes from bone marrowderived precursors. One principal goal of the use of GM-CSF in experimental oncologic therapy for solid tumors has been to permit the
Schiro JA, Kupper TS. Cutaneous Eruptions During GM-CSF Infusion: Clues for Cytokine Biology. Arch Dermatol. 1991;127(1):110–112. doi:10.1001/archderm.1991.01680010120020
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