In 1981 Scandinavian Airlines Systems was about to lose $20 million as a business. By applying a total quality management approach to customer satisfaction, it turned a $54 million profit the next year.1(p17) Japan entered the 1950s with a reputation for shoddy work and poor-quality products. With the help of W. Edwards Deming and others applying management methods of continuous quality improvement, Japan accounted for $49.7 billion, or a third of the US foreign trade deficit, by 1985.1
Ertle JO. Quality of Care and the Quality Assurance Manual of the American Academy of Dermatology. Arch Dermatol. 1997;133(11):1377–1379. doi:10.1001/archderm.1997.03890470051008
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