Experience With Molluscum Contagiosum and Associated Inflammatory Reactions in a Pediatric Dermatology Practice: The Bump That Rashes | Dermatology | JAMA Dermatology | JAMA Network
[Skip to Navigation]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address 35.170.64.36. Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
1.
Hayashida S, Furusho N, Uchi H,  et al.  Are lifetime prevalence of impetigo, molluscum and herpes infection really increased in children having atopic dermatitis?  J Dermatol Sci. 2010;60(3):173-17820971618PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
2.
Koning S, Bruijnzeels MA, van Suijlekom-Smit LWA, van der Wouden JC. Molluscum contagiosum in Dutch general practice.  Br J Gen Pract. 1994;44(386):417-4198790656PubMedGoogle Scholar
3.
Mohammedamin RS, van der Wouden JC, Koning S,  et al.  Increasing incidence of skin disorders in children? a comparison between 1987 and 2001.  BMC Dermatol. 2006;6:416551358PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
4.
Pannell RS, Fleming DM, Cross KW. The incidence of molluscum contagiosum, scabies and lichen planus.  Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133(6):985-99116274495PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
5.
Agromayor M, Ortiz P, Lopez-Estebaranz JL, Gonzalez-Nicolas J, Esteban M, Martin-Gallardo A. Molecular epidemiology of molluscum contagiosum virus and analysis of the host-serum antibody response in Spanish HIV-negative patients.  J Med Virol. 2002;66(2):151-15811782922PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
6.
Konya J, Thompson CH. Molluscum contagiosum virus: antibody responses in persons with clinical lesions and seroepidemiology in a representative Australian population.  J Infect Dis. 1999;179(3):701-7049952381PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
7.
Henao M, Freeman RG. Inflammatory molluscum contagiosum: clinicopathological study of seven cases.  Arch Dermatol. 1964;90(5):479-48214200639PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
8.
Binkley GW, Deoreo GA, Johnson HH Jr. An eczematous reaction associated with molluscum contagiosum.  AMA Arch Derm. 1956;74(4):344-34813361506PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
9.
Kipping HF. Molluscum dermatitis.  Arch Dermatol. 1971;103(1):106-1075539501PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
10.
Rocamora V, Romaní J, Puig L, de Moragas JM. Id reaction to molluscum contagiosum.  Pediatr Dermatol. 1996;13(4):349-3508844759PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
11.
Carrascosa JM, Just M, Ribera M, Ferrándiz C. Papular acrodermatitis of childhood related to poxvirus and parvovirus B19 infection.  Cutis. 1998;61(5):265-2679608338PubMedGoogle Scholar
12.
Möhrenschlager M, Ring J, Lauener R. A boy with a one-sided red rash.  Eur J Pediatr. 2011;170(4):539-54020803032PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
13.
Baek YS, Oh CH, Song HJ, Son SB. Asymmetrical periflexural exanthem of childhood with concurrence of molluscum contagiosum infection.  Clin Exp Dermatol. 2011;36(6):676-67721457157PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
14.
Dohil MA, Lin P, Lee J, Lucky AW, Paller AS, Eichenfield LF. The epidemiology of molluscum contagiosum in children.  J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54(1):47-5416384754PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
15.
Osio A, Deslandes E, Saada V, Morel P, Guibal F. Clinical characteristics of molluscum contagiosum in children in a private dermatology practice in the greater Paris area, France: a prospective study in 661 patients.  Dermatology. 2011;222(4):314-32021691050PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
16.
Simonart T, De Maertelaer V. Curettage treatment for molluscum contagiosum: a follow-up survey study.  Br J Dermatol. 2008;159(5):1144-114718795919PubMedGoogle Scholar
17.
Silverberg NB, Sidbury R, Mancini AJ. Childhood molluscum contagiosum: experience with cantharidin therapy in 300 patients.  J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43(3):503-50710954663PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
18.
Braue A, Ross G, Varigos G, Kelly H. Epidemiology and impact of childhood molluscum contagiosum: a case series and critical review of the literature.  Pediatr Dermatol. 2005;22(4):287-29416060861PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
19.
Seize MB, Ianhez M, Cestari SdaC. A study of the correlation between molluscum contagiosum and atopic dermatitis in children.  An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86(4):663-66821987130PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
20.
Kakourou T, Zachariades A, Anastasiou T, Architectonidou E, Georgala S, Theodoridou M. Molluscum contagiosum in Greek children: a case series.  Int J Dermatol. 2005;44(3):221-22315807730PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
21.
Laxmisha C, Thappa DM, Jaisankar TJ. Clinical profile of molluscum contagiosum in children versus adults.  Dermatol Online J. 2003;9(5):114996374PubMedGoogle Scholar
22.
Choong KY, Roberts LJ. Molluscum contagiosum, swimming and bathing: a clinical analysis.  Australas J Dermatol. 1999;40(2):89-9210333619PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
23.
Steffen C, Markman JA. Spontaneous disappearance of molluscum contagiosum. Report of a case.  Arch Dermatol. 1980;116(8):923-9247406521PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
24.
Schwartz JJ, Myskowski PL. Molluscum contagiosum in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a review of twenty-seven patients.  J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;27(4):583-5881357010PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
25.
Asher MI, Montefort S, Björkstén B,  et al; ISAAC Phase Three Study Group.  Worldwide time trends in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in childhood: ISAAC Phases One and Three repeat multicountry cross-sectional surveys.  Lancet. 2006;368(9537):733-74316935684PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
26.
Odhiambo JA, Williams HC, Clayton TO, Robertson CF, Asher MI.ISAAC Phase Three Study Group.  Global variations in prevalence of eczema symptoms in children from ISAAC Phase Three.  J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124(6):1251-1258, e2320004783PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
27.
Laughter D, Istvan JA, Tofte SJ, Hanifin JM. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis in Oregon schoolchildren.  J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43(4):649-65511004621PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
28.
Morales A, Puig S, Malvehy J, Zaballos P. Dermoscopy of molluscum contagiosum.  Arch Dermatol. 2005;141(12):164416365277PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
29.
Mathes EFD, Frieden IJ. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with cantharidin: a practical approach.  Pediatr Ann. 2010;39(3):124-128, 13020302243PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
30.
Smolinski KN, Yan AC. How and when to treat molluscum contagiosum and warts in children.  Pediatr Ann. 2005;34(3):211-22115792113PubMedGoogle Scholar
31.
Reynolds MG, Holman RC, Yorita Christensen KL, Cheek JE, Damon IK. The incidence of molluscum contagiosum among American Indians and Alaska natives.  PLoS One. 2009;4(4):e525519381289PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
32.
Coloe J, Morrell DS. Cantharidin use among pediatric dermatologists in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.  Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26(4):405-40819689514PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
33.
Hanna D, Hatami A, Powell J,  et al.  A prospective randomized trial comparing the efficacy and adverse effects of four recognized treatments of molluscum contagiosum in children.  Pediatr Dermatol. 2006;23(6):574-57917156002PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
34.
Al-Mutairi N, Al-Doukhi A, Al-Farag S, Al-Haddad A. Comparative study on the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of imiquimod 5% cream versus cryotherapy for molluscum contagiosum in children.  Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27(4):388-39419804497PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
35.
Seo SH, Chin HW, Jeong DW, Sung HW. An open, randomized, comparative clinical and histological study of imiquimod 5% cream versus 10% potassium hydroxide solution in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum.  Ann Dermatol. 2010;22(2):156-16220548905PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Study
ONLINE FIRST
Nov 2012

Experience With Molluscum Contagiosum and Associated Inflammatory Reactions in a Pediatric Dermatology Practice: The Bump That Rashes

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Arch Dermatol. 2012;148(11):1257-1264. doi:10.1001/archdermatol.2012.2414
Abstract

Objective To investigate the frequency, epidemiology, clinical features, and prognostic significance of inflamed molluscum contagiosum (MC) lesions, molluscum dermatitis, reactive papular eruptions resembling Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, and atopic dermatitis in patients with MC.

Design Retrospective medical chart review.

Setting University-based pediatric dermatology practice.

Patients A total of 696 patients (mean age, 5.5 years) with molluscum.

Main Outcome Measures Frequencies, characteristics, and associated features of inflammatory reactions to MC in patients with and without atopic dermatitis.

Results Molluscum dermatitis, inflamed MC lesions, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome–like reactions (GCLRs) occurred in 270 (38.8%), 155 (22.3%), and 34 (4.9%) of the patients, respectively. A total of 259 patients (37.2%) had a history of atopic dermatitis. Individuals with atopic dermatitis had higher numbers of MC lesions (P < .001) and an increased likelihood of molluscum dermatitis (50.6% vs 31.8%; P < .001). In patients with molluscum dermatitis, numbers of MC lesions increased during the next 3 months in 23.4% of those treated with a topical corticosteroid and 33.3% of those not treated with a topical corticosteroid, compared with 16.8% of patients without dermatitis. Patients with inflamed MC lesions were less likely to have an increased number of MC lesions over the next 3 months than patients without inflamed MC lesions or dermatitis (5.2% vs 18.4%; P < .03). The GCLRs were associated with inflamed MC lesion (P < .001), favored the elbows and knees, tended to be pruritic, and often heralded resolution of MC. Two patients developed unilateral laterothoracic exanthem–like eruptions.

Conclusions Inflammatory reactions to MC, including the previously underrecognized GCLR, are common. Treatment of molluscum dermatitis can reduce spread of MC via autoinoculation from scratching, whereas inflamed MC lesions and GCLRs reflect cell-mediated immune responses that may lead to viral clearance.

×