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Figure.  Association of Psychotropic Medication and Lupus Remission
Association of Psychotropic Medication and Lupus Remission

Decision trees illustrate (A) the most discriminating factors (beyond smoking) for lupus remission, and (B) lupus remission in patients with PD according to psychotropic medication status. PD indicates psychiatric disorder; SRL, skin-restricted lupus erythematosus.

Table.  Lupus Remission According to the Presence of Psychiatric Disorders and Psychotropic Medications
Lupus Remission According to the Presence of Psychiatric Disorders and Psychotropic Medications
1.
Jalenques  I, Rondepierre  F, Massoubre  C,  et al; Lupus Group.  High prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with skin-restricted lupus: a case-control study.  Br J Dermatol. 2016;174(5):1051-1060.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
2.
Achtman  J, Kling  MA, Feng  R, Okawa  J, Werth  VP.  A cross-sectional study of untreated depression and anxiety in cutaneous lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis.  J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;74(2):377-379.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
3.
Farhangian  ME, Huang  WW, Feldman  SR.  Adherence to Oral and Topical Medications in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus is not Well Characterized.  Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2015;5(2):91-105.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
4.
Ganança  L, Oquendo  MA, Tyrka  AR, Cisneros-Trujillo  S, Mann  JJ, Sublette  ME.  The role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior.  Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;63:296-310.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
5.
Hannestad  J, DellaGioia  N, Bloch  M.  The effect of antidepressant medication treatment on serum levels of inflammatory cytokines: a meta-analysis.  Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36(12):2452-2459.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
6.
Ramirez  K, Niraula  A, Sheridan  JF.  GABAergic modulation with classical benzodiazepines prevent stress-induced neuro-immune dysregulation and behavioral alterations.  Brain Behav Immun. 2016;51:154-168.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Research Letter
December 2017

Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders and Skin-Restricted Lupus Remission: A Longitudinal Study

Author Affiliations
  • 1Service de Psychiatrie de l'Adulte A et Psychologie médicale, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 2Service de Psychiatrie de l'Adulte A et Psychologie médicale, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 3Service de Psychiatrie, CHU St-Etienne, University Jean Monnet, St-Etienne, France
  • 4Service de dermatologie, CHU Hopital Nord, Saint-Etienne, France
  • 5Direction de la Recherche Clinique et de l’Innovation, CHU Clermont Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 6Service de Dermatologie, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France
JAMA Dermatol. 2017;153(12):1331-1332. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.3590

Skin-restricted lupus erythematosus (SRL) comprises discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), lupus tumidus (LT), and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE). We and others reported a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders (PD), often undertreated, in patients with SRL.1,2 However, the impact of PDs and psychotropic medications on skin disease outcome has not been described. Thus, we decided to investigate this relationship in a patient cohort over 2.5 years.

Methods

After providing written informed consent, 75 patients with DLE, LT, or SCLE, prospectively recruited, were assessed by a dermatologist and a psychiatrist every 6 months over 2.5 years. The dermatologist recorded whether the SRL was in remission as defined by the complete absence of inflammatory lesions. More details can be found in previous article.1 This study received approval from the local ethical review board.

To assess the relationship between SRL remission and current psychiatric factors, we compared patients according to remission or not in univariate analysis, taking 1 assessment as the statistical unit because patient status for SRL remission, PD presence, and use of psychotropic medications may change during the study. A conditional inference tree (Figure) was built and plotted to illustrate the associations in a nonparametric manner. All displayed P values are Bonferroni corrected. We then used a multilevel mixed model and adjusted for the presence of PDs and treatments to take into account repetitive evaluations for each patient. All P values (2 sided) less than .05 were considered statistically significant.

Results

Overall, 313 assessments were made (4.2 per patient); 47 patients (63%) underwent the 5 assessments and 56 patient (75%) underwent at least 4. After exclusion of incomplete assessments, the data of 292 assessments were analyzed. The most discriminating factor for complete SRL remission was cigarette smoking. However, because of its strong association with SRL and PDs, we decided to look beyond this factor and performed the analysis for the conditional inference tree (Figure, A). A history of suicide attempt was identified as the second discriminating factor; psychotropic medication was identified as the third discriminating factor.

Thus, we focused attention on patients with PD (Figure, B). During follow-up, 43 patients had at least 1 assessment with a PD. In these assessments, psychotropic medications were associated with SRL remission (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.6; P = .02). To take into account the patient effect, a multivariate analysis of lupus remission was performed (Table). The presence of PDs tended to decrease the chances of SRL remission while psychotropic treatments appeared to increase them.

Discussion

To our knowledge, our study is the first to assess the clinical and therapeutic psychiatric factors associated with SRL remission.

First, smoking is a factor of poor prognosis in SRL in agreement with actions of tobacco consumption in the SRL pathogenesis.

Second, a history of attempted suicide is associated with a bad outcome of skin lesions, and psychotropic drugs help in achieving remission of SRL in patients with PDs. Patients with SRL who have attempted suicide could be less likely to comply with dermatological treatment owing to their negative health behaviors and PDs,1,3 while improvement in PDs treated by psychotropic medications could contribute to better compliance with SRL treatment.3 Proinflammatory cytokines may also be a contributory factor because the same cytokines are increased in patients with SRL who have attempted suicide4 and could be decreased by some antidepressants5and benzodiazepines.6

Our study has some limitations. We did not use a validated skin score and instead used SRL remission. Because of variations of patient status over 2.5 years, the analysis was based on assessments; we cannot discern whether psychiatric medications improve skin outcomes in an individual patient. Nevertheless, dermatologists should be further encouraged to identify PDs in patients with SRL because their treatment with psychotropic medications was associated with improved skin disease outcome.

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Isabelle Jalenques, MD, PhD, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Service de Psychiatrie de l'Adulte A et Psychologie médicale, 58 rue Montalembert, 63003 Clermont-Ferrand, France (ijalenques@chu-clermontferrand.fr).

Accepted for Publication: July 25, 2017.

Published Online: October 4, 2017. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.3590

Author Contributions Drs Jalenques and Rondepierre had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Study concept and design: Jalenques, D’Incan.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Jalenques, Rondepierre, Massoubre, Labeille, Perrot, Mulliez.

Drafting of the manuscript: Jalenques, Rondepierre, D’Incan.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors.

Statistical analysis: Rondepierre, Mulliez.

Obtained funding: Jalenques, D’Incan.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Rondepierre.

Study supervision: Jalenques, Massoubre, Perrot.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

Funding/Support: This study was supported by a grant from the French Ministry of Health (PHRC IR 2006 Jalenques, No. 2008-A00343-52) and from Société Française de Dermatologie, 2010.

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder/sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

The LuPsy Cohort Investigators: François Aubin (Université de Franche Comté, CHU Besançon, Service de Dermatologie, Besançon, France), Christophe Bedane (Department of dermatology, Hopital Dupuytren, Limoges, France), Sophie Bonnefond (Urgences psychiatriques, Centre Hospitalier Esquirol, Limoges, France), Myriam Chastaing (Unité de Psychiatrie de Liaison et Service de Dermatologie, CHU Brest, Brest, France), Marianne Collange (Service de Psychiatrie de l'Adulte A et Psychologie médicale, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France), Patrick Combemale, Denys Courbier (Hôpital d’instruction des armées Desgenettes, Lyon, France), Carole Durand (Service de Psychiatrie de l'Adulte A et Psychologie médicale, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France), Jean Paul Grand (CHS Le Valmont, Urgences et Psychiatrie de Liaison, Hôpital Général de Valence, Valence, France), Emmanuel Haffen (Department of clinical psychiatry, INSERM, university hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France), Laurent Misery (University Hospital of Brest, Department of Dermatology and University of Western Brittany, Laboratory of Neurosciences of Brest, Brest, France), Anne Laure Pontonnier (Service de Psychiatrie de l'Adulte A et Psychologie médicale, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France), (Robert Schwan (University Hospital of Psychiatrie and Psychotherapie, Laxou, France), François Skowron (Service de dermatologie, CH de Valence, Valence, France), Agnès Sparsa (Service de Médecine Interne, Clinique Mutualiste Catalane, Perpignan, France), Gaëlle Theilhol (Service de Psychiatrie de l'Adulte A et Psychologie médicale, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France), Julie Waton (Service de dermatologie, CHU de Nancy, Nancy, France).

Additional Contributions: We thank Silla Consoli for help in the preparation of the study design, the patients who participated in this study, and J. Watts for advice on the English version of the manuscript.

References
1.
Jalenques  I, Rondepierre  F, Massoubre  C,  et al; Lupus Group.  High prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with skin-restricted lupus: a case-control study.  Br J Dermatol. 2016;174(5):1051-1060.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
2.
Achtman  J, Kling  MA, Feng  R, Okawa  J, Werth  VP.  A cross-sectional study of untreated depression and anxiety in cutaneous lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis.  J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;74(2):377-379.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
3.
Farhangian  ME, Huang  WW, Feldman  SR.  Adherence to Oral and Topical Medications in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus is not Well Characterized.  Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2015;5(2):91-105.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
4.
Ganança  L, Oquendo  MA, Tyrka  AR, Cisneros-Trujillo  S, Mann  JJ, Sublette  ME.  The role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior.  Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016;63:296-310.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
5.
Hannestad  J, DellaGioia  N, Bloch  M.  The effect of antidepressant medication treatment on serum levels of inflammatory cytokines: a meta-analysis.  Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36(12):2452-2459.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
6.
Ramirez  K, Niraula  A, Sheridan  JF.  GABAergic modulation with classical benzodiazepines prevent stress-induced neuro-immune dysregulation and behavioral alterations.  Brain Behav Immun. 2016;51:154-168.PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
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