UV Light Tanning as a Type of Substance-Related Disorder | Dermatology | JAMA Dermatology | JAMA Network
[Skip to Navigation]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
US Department of Health and Human Services, 10th Report on Carcinogens  Washington, DC US Dept of Health and Human Services December2002;
Mayfield  DMcLeod  GHall  P The CAGE Questionnaire: validation of a new alcoholism screening instrument  Am J Psychiatry 1974;1311121- 1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision  Washington, DC American Psychiatric Association2000;
Monfrecola  GFabbrocini  GPosteraro  GPini  D What do young people think of sunbathing, skin cancer and sunbeds? a questionnaire survey among Italians  Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2000;1615- 18PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Mawn  VBFleisher  AB  Jr A survey of attitudes, beliefs, and behavior regarding tanning bed use, sunburn and sunscreen use  J Am Acad Dermatol 1993;29959- 962PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Arthey  SClarke  VA Suntanning and sun protection: a review of the psychological literature  Soc Sci Med 1995;40265- 274PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Robinson  JKRademaker  AWSylvester  JACook  B Summer sun exposure: knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of Midwest adolescents  Prev Med 1997;26364- 372PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Robinson  JKRigel  DSAmonette  RA Trends in sun exposure knowledge, attitudes and behaviors: 1986 to 1996  J Am Acad Dermatol 1997;37179- 186PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Hillhouse  JJTurrisi  R Examination of the efficacy of an appearance-focused intervention to reduce UV exposure  J Behav Med 2002;25395- 400PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Turrisi  RHillhouse  JHeavin  SRobinson  JAdams  MBerry  J Examination of the short-term efficacy of a parent-based intervention to prevent skin cancer  J Behav Med 2004;27393- 412PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Mahler  HIKulik  JAHarrell  JCorrea  AGibbons  FXGerrard  M Effects of UV photographs, photoaging information and use of sunless tanning lotion on sun protection behaviors  Arch Dermatol 2005;141373- 380PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Ramirez  MWarthan  MMUchida  TWagner  RF “Double exposure”: natural and artificial ultraviolet radiation exposure in beachgoers  South Med J 2003;96652- 655PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Feldman  SRLiguori  AKucenic  M  et al.  Ultraviolet exposure is a reinforcing stimulus in frequent indoor tanners  J Am Acad Dermatol 2004;5145- 51PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Levins  PCCarr  DBFisher  JEMomtaz  KParrish  JA Plasma beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin response to ultraviolet radiation  Lancet 1983;2166PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Belon  PE UVA exposure and pituitary secretion. Variations of human lipotropin concentrations (beta LPH) after UVA exposure  Photochem Photobiol 1985;42327- 329PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Wintzen  MOstijn  DMPolderman  MCle Cessie  SBurbach  JPVermeer  BJ Total body exposure to ultraviolet radiation does not influence plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin in man  Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2001;17256- 260PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Gambichler  TBader  AVojvodic  M  et al.  Plasma levels of opioid peptides after sunbed exposures  Br J Dermatol 2002;1471207- 1211PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Volkow  NDFowler  JSWang  GJ The addicted human brain viewed in the light of imaging studies: brain circuits and treatment strategies  Neuropharmacology 2004;47(suppl 1)3- 13PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Beasley  TMKittel  BS Factors that influence health risk behaviors among tanning salon patrons  Eval Health Prof 1997;20371- 388PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
 Texas Health and Safety Code; Chapter 145 (Tanning Facilities); Section 145.008 (f) (g); 2001.Available atwww.capitol.state.tx.us/statutes/statutes.html
Dellavalle  RPParker  ERCersonsky  N  et al.  Youth access laws: in the dark at the tanning parlor?  Arch Dermatol 2003;139443- 448PubMedGoogle Scholar
Lim  H Texas ultraviolet tanning youth access law [reply]  J Am Acad Dermatol 2005;52926- 927PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
August 2005

UV Light Tanning as a Type of Substance-Related Disorder

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Department of Dermatology (Drs Warthan and Wagner) and Office of Biostatistics (Mr Uchida), The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston. Dr Warthan is now with the Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk.

Arch Dermatol. 2005;141(8):963-966. doi:10.1001/archderm.141.8.963

Objective  To better understand the complex motivations involved with UV light (UVL) tanning behavior.

Design  Two written instruments, the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener) Questionnaire, used to screen for alcohol abuse or dependence, and the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for substance-related disorders, were modified to evaluate subjects for a substance-related disorder involving UVL tanning.

Setting  Galveston Island beach.

Subjects  A total of 145 beachgoers.

Main Outcome Measures  Positive findings from the 2 evaluation instruments.

Results  Of the 145 subjects, 38 (26%) met the modified CAGE criteria, and 77 (53%) met the modified DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for a substance-related disorder with regard to UVL and related sun tanning. The results from both instruments were significantly associated (P = .03).

Conclusions  Individuals who chronically and repetitively expose themselves to UVL to tan may have a novel type of UVL substance-related disorder.