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December 1955

Sporotrichosis: Special Reference: A Revision of So-Called Sporotrichum Gougerotii

Author Affiliations

San Juan, Puerto Rico; New York

AMA Arch Derm. 1955;72(6):523-534. doi:10.1001/archderm.1955.03730360029003


Fungi and Human Disease.—The first pathologic conditions ever shown to be caused by microbes in man, namely, thrush,1 favus,2 and ringworm,3 were all fungus diseases. Notwithstanding this, the pioneer workers in medical microbiology centered their attention primarily and for many years on the pathogenic bacteria because these organisms, as a rule, are more aggressive than the fungi and they take a heavier toll on human life. In the course of time, however, a large proportion of the major problems created by the infecting bacteria have found satisfactory solution, and now the interest of microbiologists is being gradually moved toward the fungus infections. Many medical centers throughout the world have already organized well-equipped laboratories dedicated to research in this new field; the biology of the pathogenic fungi is being carefully studied, and during the last decades several hitherto unknown mycoses have

Vuillemin, P.: Letters, 1909, cited by de Beurmann, C. L., and Gougerot, H.7
Verdun, P., and Mandoul, H., cited by Dodge 10; also Mandoul and Mandoul.8
This section was sent to us by Loyal S. Suter, Bacteriologist, Kennedy Hospital, Memphis.
Sources of cultures of so-called Sporotrichum gougerotii: (1) Specimen No. 1792, from Bacteriological Laboratory, Kennedy Hospital, Memphis, sent to us for study by Loyal S. Suter, described by Young and Ulrich13; (2) Specimen No. 7031, from Mycologic Laboratory, National Institute of Health, Bethesda, Md., originally obtained from Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn, Netherlands, sent by Chester W. Emmons, Senior Mycologist; (3) Specimen No. 7028, also from the National Institute of Health, originally obtained from R. Sabouraud's Laboratory, Paris.
Sources of cultures of so-called Sporotrichum schenckii: (1) Specimen S-516, author's collection, from recent Puerto Rican case of sporotrichosis; (2) Specimen S. F. S. 24, from Laboratory Collection, Communicable Disease Center, Chamblee, Ga.; (3) Specimen H-28, Farlow Herbarium, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Notwithstanding previous treatment by Gray 18 and Link,19 Art. 23 of the "International Code of Botanical Nomenclature" 20 sets the validity of Fries' description21 for the genus Sporotricum. Sporotrichum was first validly published by Gray in 1821 ("Natural Arrangement of British Plants").18 It included five species: S. fuscum Lk. ex Gray, S. badium Lk. ex Gray, S. stuposum Lk. ex Gray, S. aureum Lk. ex Gray, and S. candidum Lk. ex Gray. However, Art. 23 of the "International Code of Botanical Nomenclature" provides that the name published between 1821 and 1832 cannot supersede a name used in Fries, "Systema mycologicum." 21 Hence the accepted application of Sporotrichum must be one, if such a one exists, on which Gray and Fries are agreed. But Fries (Syst. myc. 3:415-425) 21 rejects four of the five species accepted by Gray, retaining only one, namely S. aureum Lk. ex Gray, which he renamed S. aurantiacum Fr. (Syst. myc. 3:423).21 Consequently, this must be the type species of Sporotrichum.
Cited by de Beurmann and Gougerot.7
Cited by Mandoul and Mandoul.8
Skinner and others,14 p. 113.
References 23 to 26.
Dematium is a poorly defined group generally considered to be identical with Pullularia.
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Gougerot, H.:  New Insight Gained in General Pathology and Practical Medicine by the Study of Sporotrichoses ,  Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 50: 1348-1356, 1950.
Young, J. M., and Ulrich, E.:  Sporotrichosis Produced by Sporotrichum Gougeroti ,  A. M. A. Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 67:44-52, 1953.
Skinner, C. E.; Emmons, C. W., and Tsuchiga, H. M., editors:  Henrici's Molds, Yeasts, and Actinomycetes , Ed. 2, New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1947, p. 69.
Thom, C., and Raper, K. B.:  A Manual of the Aspergilli, Baltimore , The William & Wilkins Company, 1945, p. 23.
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Medlar, E. M.:  A New Fungus, Phialophora Verrucosa, Pathogenic for Man ,  Mycologia 7:200-203, 1915.
Gray, S. F.,  S. aureum Lk. ex. Gray, Nat Arr. Br. Pl. 1:550, 1821.
Link, H. F.,  S. aureum Lk., Linn. Sp. Pl. (Ed. 4) 6( (1) ):15, 1824.
 International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Stockholm, 1950) , Utrecht, Netherlands, (Sept.) , 1952.
Fries, E. M.:  S. aurantiacum Fr., Syst. mycol. 3( (2) ):423, 1832.
Carrión, A. L.:  Yeastlike Dematiaceous Fungi Infecting the Human Skin ,  Arch. Dermat. & Syph. 61:996-1009, 1950.
Emmons, C. W., and Carrión, A. L.:  The Phialophora Type of Sporulation in Hormodendrum Pedrosoi and H. Compactum ,  Puerto Rico J. Pub. Health and Trop. Med. 11:703-710, 1935-1936.
Emmons, C. W., and, Carrión, A. L.:  Sporulation of the Phialophora Type in Hormodendrum ,  Mycologia 29:327-333, 1937.
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Costantin, J.:  Les mucédinées simples , Paris, Librairie Paul Klincksieck, 1888, pp. 141 and 157.